132 Mobile Electronic Commerce
as rural areas and cities that lack the infrastructure necessary for every
citizen to have web access are disadvantaged because in the absence of
web connectivity, provisioning of government services is done manually.
In regions that do not have Internet access, citizens are forced to wait in
long lines for each service or information request.
On the contrary, India is witnessing an exponential growth of Internet
users on mobile devices that access government information using a cell
phone over the cell carrier network. People in rural India are spending
more than those in urban areas, according to a study by Accenture.
The aforementioned problem and recent developments conclude that
India is moving toward m-government. M-government involves a num-
ber of functions, for example, short message service (SMS), applications,
and mobile website. This study focuses on the mobile version of National
Portal of India. At present, National Portal of India does not have a mobile
version; hence, the access to the National Portal of India and its services
is limited on a mobile device. This chapter is an attempt to analyze what
are the factors involved in the mobile site of India.gov.in and what are the
levels of mobile websites.
7.2 Literature review
Since the time mobile computing came into the picture, a few developed
government organizations have started moving toward m-government.
Various authors have dened m-government in their own way. Table7.1
presents denitions of m-government from different researchers over one
decade. It can be noted in Table 7.1 that over the years the denitions have
also evolved. Earlier m-government was more of a subset of e- government,
and now it is an independent identity. According to Kailasam (2012),
m-governance is not a replacement for e-governance, rather it comple-
Extensive research on m-government has been done over the last
decade. Appolis et al. (2012) investigated m-government services and the
barriers to adoption. Surveys were done to ascertain how citizens inter-
act and access government services and information via their mobile
phones. Initially, there were studies on issues and challenges related to
m-government. Rossel et al. (2006) explored mobile e-government issues
by analyzing their historical evolution. Carroll (2005) focused on issues
that would enhance or delay the widespread acceptance of m-govern-
ment services among the users of public sector organizations. Around
the same time, Kumar and Prasad (2007) discussed some technical and
policy consideration of mobile technology in the context of e-govern-
ment, which can be better known as m-government. Antovski and Gusev
(2005) have discussed not only the issues related to m-government but