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Mobile Electronic Commerce by June Wei

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415
chapter twenty
Smart city as a service platform
Identication and validationof
cityplatform roles in mobile
service provision
Nils Walravens
Contents
20.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................416
20.2 Framework ............................................................................................416
20.3 City context .......................................................................................... 419
20.4 Toward a platform typology for the city ......................................... 420
20.5 Enabler city platform .......................................................................... 423
20.5.1 Case: London Data Portal and the London Bike App ....... 424
20.5.1.1 Control and governance issues .............................. 424
20.5.1.2 Value and public value issues ................................426
20.5.1.3 Discussion ................................................................. 428
20.6 Integrator city platform ...................................................................... 429
20.6.1 Case: NYC 311 .......................................................................... 429
20.6.1.1 Control and governance issues .............................. 430
20.6.1.2 Value and public value issues ................................433
20.6.1.3 Discussion ................................................................. 435
20.7 Neutral city platform .......................................................................... 435
20.7.1 Case: Open 311 ........................................................................ 436
20.7.1.1 Discussion ................................................................. 437
20.8 Broker city platform ............................................................................ 437
20.8.1 Case: I Amsterdam QR spots and Amsterdam partners ....... 437
20.8.1.1 Control and governance issues .............................. 438
20.8.1.2 Value and public value issues ................................440
20.8.1.3 Discussion .................................................................442
20.9 City platform typology ......................................................................442
20.10 Conclusion ............................................................................................443
Acknowledgments ......................................................................................... 444
References ........................................................................................................444
416 Mobile Electronic Commerce
20.1 Introduction
In a period of less than a decade, the mobile telecommunications indus-
try has undergone some dramatic changes. New players like Apple and
Google have entered the market, launching a wave of innovation through
the industry. After several failed attempts, for example, WAP and i-Mode in
Europe, a market for attractive mobile services was created and is continu-
ally growing. This changing playing eld has diverse implications for all
actors involved, and many are taking up new places in the value network:
New players enter the eld, roles and relationships change, and the inter-
ests of companies and stakeholders—including their business models—are
redrawn (see e.g., Basole, 2009). These shifts appear to be going hand in
hand with a trend of platformization, that is, diverse companies adopting
platform strategies as they vie for dominance in mobile service provision.
The different types of platforms we can identify in this sector were only
recently made explicit and validated (see e.g., Ballon et al., 2009).
These strategic business model changes are occurring while the context
of the main target audience of mobile service providers—the consumer—
changes as well. Although it is a much more gradual process, it is now
accepted that an increased urbanization will be one of the main societal trends
in coming years (Brand, 2006). Since 2007, over half of the worlds population
lives in cities and the UN predicts this number will only grow, to a predicted
70% by 2050 (UN HABITAT, 2010). As more citizens (and consumers) move
to urban areas, actors from ICT and mobile telecommunications naturally
become increasingly interested in offering services that are tailored to life in
the urban environment. Cities and local governments are at the same time
exploring the role that new ICT services and products can play in increasing
the quality of life of their citizens. In recent years, this quest is often captured
in the Smart City concept, which will be briey touched upon later on.
Currently, cities are struggling to see which roles they can take up
in this quickly changing landscape of mobile services. The aim of this
chapter is to apply a general mobile services typology to the specic
context of the city, creating a framework cities can use to consider their
place in the value network. We will explore the different platform roles
a city government can take up in supporting, facilitating, and/or provid-
ing mobile services to citizens and travelers by applying and adapting
the general mobile service platform typology to this context, based on the
thorough analysis of several international cases.
20.2 Framework
As a rst step in this chapter, we will briey summarize the concept of
platformization. While there have been some attempts at conceptualiz-
ing ICT platforms (Schiff, 2003; Evans et al., 2005; Eisenmann,2007) and

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