Table 7.1 lists the social phenomena of interest for the six archetypal problems introduced in Chapter 2 and discussed in Chapter 3. All of these phenomena are concerned with social systems, values and norms, and information sharing. This chapter addresses the state of knowledge in representing these phenomena.
Table 7.1 Social Phenomena Associated with Archetypal Problems
|Traffic control||Drivers information sharing on routes and shortcuts||Social, information sharing|
|Urban resilience||Peoples information sharing on perceptions, expectations, and intentions||Social, information sharing|
|Counterfeit parts||Social system of defense industry||Social, organizations|
|Healthcare delivery||Social system of healthcare industry||Social, organizations|
|Urban resilience||Social system of city, communities, and neighborhoods||Social, organizations|
|Counterfeit parts||Values and norms of defense industry||Social, values and norms|
|Healthcare delivery||Values and norms of healthcare industry||Social, values and norms|
|Urban resilience||Values and norms of communities and neighborhoods||Social, values and norms|
The primary emphases in the chapter are on organizations as social systems and cities as social systems. We will consider social networks and communications, as well as social values and norms. Two contrasts are of particular importance. One is the notion of emergence versus design. The other is direct versus representative ...