Table 7.1 lists the social phenomena of interest for the six archetypal problems introduced in Chapter 2 and discussed in Chapter 3. All of these phenomena are concerned with social systems, values and norms, and information sharing. This chapter addresses the state of knowledge in representing these phenomena.

Table 7.1 Social Phenomena Associated with Archetypal Problems

Problem Phenomena Category
Traffic control Drivers information sharing on routes and shortcuts Social, information sharing
Urban resilience Peoples information sharing on perceptions, expectations, and intentions Social, information sharing
Counterfeit parts Social system of defense industry Social, organizations
Healthcare delivery Social system of healthcare industry Social, organizations
Urban resilience Social system of city, communities, and neighborhoods Social, organizations
Counterfeit parts Values and norms of defense industry Social, values and norms
Healthcare delivery Values and norms of healthcare industry Social, values and norms
Urban resilience Values and norms of communities and neighborhoods Social, values and norms

The primary emphases in the chapter are on organizations as social systems and cities as social systems. We will consider social networks and communications, as well as social values and norms. Two contrasts are of particular importance. One is the notion of emergence versus design. The other is direct versus representative ...

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