Chapter 1 The Phase-Equilibrium Problem

We live in a world of mixtures – the air we breathe, the food we eat, the gasoline in our automobiles. Wherever we turn, we find that our lives are linked with materials that consist of a variety of chemical substances. Many of the things we do are concerned with the transfer of substances from one mixture to another; for example, in our lungs, we take oxygen from the air and dissolve it in our blood, while carbon dioxide leaves the blood and enters the air; in our coffee maker, water-soluble ingredients are leached from coffee grains into water; and when someone stains his tie with gravy, he relies on cleaning fluid to dissolve and thereby remove the greasy spot. In each of these common daily experiences, ...

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