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Multi-terminal Direct-Current Grids: Modeling, Analysis, and Control by Nilanjan Chaudhuri, Balarko Chaudhuri, Rajat Majumder, Amirnaser Yazdani

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3.4 AC–MTDC Load flow Analysis

Load flow study is an essential part of the planning and operation of a power system. It is also the first step before doing the dynamic simulation. The load flow analysis of combined AC–MTDC network is presented in the following sections. All AC side voltages and currents are expressed with respect to the common network reference frame c03-math-0511c03-math-0512 and common base values.

3.4.1 AC Grid Load flow Model

The objective of the AC grid load flow is to determine the voltage magnitude and angle at each bus of the AC system. If the current injection at each bus of the AC system was known a priori, then (3.84) could be solved for the voltage phasors using the relation c03-math-0513, which is linear in nature. Unfortunately, the current injection is not known beforehand and it is related to the the injected power and bus voltage at the c03-math-0514th bus through the following load flow equation:

Depending on the constraints imposed by the nodes of the AC system, the problem becomes nonlinear ...

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