498 INDEX
intonation languages, 15, 219
IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), 12, 92,
162, 278
ISCII (Indian Script Code for Information
Interchange), 28
ISIP (Institute for Signal and Information
Processing), 44, 54
ISIS system, 407–417
discourse and dialog, 412–413
example dialog in, 417
ISIS domain, 407–408
multiagent communication in, 426–427
natural language understanding (NLU),
409–412
overview, 407
speaker authentication (SA), 414
spoken response generation, 413
system architecture—CORBA, 414–417
trilingual speech recognition (SR), 408–409
ISLE Corpus, 286
isolating languages, 17
IST (Information Society Technologies)
program, 57
IWSLT (International Workshop for Spoken
Language Translation), 371
J
JANUS speech recognition tool kit (JRTk), 344
Japanese speech recognition, as ATR system
component, 376–378
JEIDA, 44
join costs, 212
Joint Research Centre (JRC), 56
JRC (Joint Research Centre), 56
JRTk (JANUS speech recognition tool kit), 344
K
Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language
(KQML), 425
knowledge scope expansion, adaptivity to,
417–425
detecting new stock names, 420–422
invoking subdialog for new stock
incorporation, 422–425
overview, 417–420
Korean and Farsi CallFriend calls, 46
KQML (Knowledge Query and Manipulation
Language), 425
Kullback-Leibler divergence, 177
L
LangNet project, 43
language characteristics, 5–31
language in context, 20–22
languages and dialects, 5–8
languages and speech technology, 30–31
linguistic description and classification, 8–20
language family, 9–11
language typology, 11–20
writing systems, 22–29
digital representation and input methods,
27–28
oral languages, 28–29
types of, 23–27
language detection, 242
Language Engineering program, 57
language family, 8, 9–11
language identification (LID), 46; see also
automatic language identification
language independent acoustic modeling,
102–110
combination of context-dependent acoustic
models, 106–110
data-driven model combination, 104–105
heuristic model combination, 104
hierarchical model combination, 105–106
overview, 102–103
language independent sound inventories and
representations, 91–102
alternative representations, 93–96
overview, 91–92
phonetic coverage across languages,
99–102
phonetic sound inventories, 92–93
sound unit sharing across languages, 96–99
language model for trees, relating to statistical
translation using formal Interlingua, 331
language modeling, multilingual, see
multilingual language modeling
language portability, relating to
speech-to-speech translation, 319–320
language resources, 67–70
Language Resources and Evaluation (LRE)
program, 57

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