Chapter 11

Matrix Calculus and Euclidean Vector Space

This book uses several elements of algebra, specifically matrix calculus and the notion of spaces endowed with a distance (or a metric). To help users avoid having to read a general algebra book, we have grouped these elements together. These examples do not need to be read in any particular order, given that each one uses elements of the other.

11.1 Matrix Calculus


A matrix is a set of numbers organised in a rectangular table. It is generally denoted by a capital letter (for example, X). Its terms (= elements = entries) are designated using indices, the first being that of the rows (for example, A12, at the crossing of the first row and the second column).

The dimensions of a ...

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