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Multivalency

Book Description

Connects fundamental knowledge of multivalent interactions with current practice and state-of-the-art applications 

Multivalency is a widespread phenomenon, with applications spanning supramolecular chemistry, materials chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry and biochemistry. This advanced textbook provides students and junior scientists with an excellent introduction to the fundamentals of multivalent interactions, whilst expanding the knowledge of experienced researchers in the field.

Multivalency: Concepts, Research & Applications is divided into three parts. Part one provides background knowledge on various aspects of multivalency and cooperativity and presents practical methods for their study. Fundamental aspects such as thermodynamics, kinetics and the principle of effective molarity are described, and characterisation methods, experimental methodologies and data treatment methods are also discussed. Parts two and three provide an overview of current systems in which multivalency plays an important role in chemistry and biology, with a focus on the design rules, underlying chemistry and the fundamental principles of multivalency. The systems covered range from chemical/materials-based ones such as dendrimers and sensors, to biological systems including cell recognition and protein binding. Examples and case studies from biochemistry/bioorganic chemistry as well as synthetic systems feature throughout the book.

  • Introduces students and young scientists to the field of multivalent interactions and assists experienced researchers utilising the methodologies in their work
  • Features examples and case studies from biochemistry/bioorganic chemistry, as well as synthetic systems throughout the book
  • Edited by leading experts in the field with contributions from established scientists

Multivalency: Concepts, Research & Applications is recommended for graduate students and junior scientists in supramolecular chemistry and related fields, looking for an introduction to multivalent interactions. It is also highly useful to experienced academics and scientists in industry working on research relating to multivalent and cooperative systems in supramolecular chemistry, organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, chemical biology, biochemistry, materials science and nanotechnology.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. List of Contributors
  4. Foreword
    1. Reference
  5. Preface
  6. Part 1: General Introduction to Multivalent Interactions
    1. 1 Additivity of Energy Contributions in Multivalent Complexes
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Additivity of Single Interactions – Examples
      3. 1.3 Limitations of Additivity
      4. 1.4 Cooperativity
      5. 1.5 Allostery
      6. 1.6 Conclusions
      7. References
    2. 2 Models and Methods in Multivalent Systems
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Numerical Data Analysis
      3. 2.3 Models for Multivalent Systems
      4. 2.4 Special Multivalent Systems
      5. 2.5 Conclusions
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    3. 3 Design Principles for Super Selectivity using Multivalent Interactions
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Super Selectivity: An Emergent Property of Multivalency
      3. 3.3 Multivalent Polymer Adsorption
      4. 3.4 Which Systems are Super Selective?
      5. 3.5 Design Principles for Super‐Selective Targeting
      6. 3.6 Summary: It is interesting, but is it useful?
      7. Appendix 3.A: What Is Effective Molarity?
      8. Acknowledgements
      9. References
    4. 4 Multivalency in Biosystems
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Cell–Cell Adhesion
      3. 4.3 Phase Transition, Multivalent Intracellular Assemblies
      4. 4.4 Multivalency in the Fluid Phase, Pathogen Opsonization
      5. 4.5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgment
      7. References
  7. Part 2: Multivalent Systems in Chemistry
    1. 5 Multivalency in Cyclodextrin/Polymer Systems
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 General Perspectives of Multivalency in Cyclodextrin/Polymer Systems
      3. 5.3 Typical Examples of Multivalency in Cyclodextrin/Polymer Systems
      4. 5.4 Summary and Outlook
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
    2. 6 Cucurbit[n]uril‐Mediated Multiple Interactions]uril‐Mediated Multiple Interactions
      1. 6.1 Introduction to Cucurbit[n]uril Chemistry
      2. 6.2 Heteroternary Complexes
      3. 6.3 Homoternary Complexes
      4. 6.4 Conclusions
      5. References
    3. 7 Multivalency as a Design Criterion in Catalyst Development
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Formation of Enzyme‐Like Catalytic Pockets
      3. 7.3 Cooperativity Between Functional Groups
      4. 7.4 Mechanistic Effects
      5. 7.5 The Dendritic Effect in Multivalent Nanozymes
      6. 7.6 Multivalent Catalysts and Multivalent Substrates
      7. 7.7 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgements
      9. References
    4. 8 Multivalent Molecular Recognition on the Surface of Bilayer Vesicles
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Molecular Recognition of Vesicles
      3. 8.3 Biomimetic Vesicles
      4. 8.4 Vesicle‐based Supramolecular Materials
      5. 8.5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgment
      7. References
  8. Part 3: Multivalent Systems in Biology
    1. 9 Blocking Pathogens by Multivalent Inhibitors
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Design of Multivalent Ligand Architectures
      3. 9.3 Multivalent Carbohydrate Ligands
      4. 9.4 Scaffold Architecture
      5. 9.5 Nano‐ and Microgels for Pathogen Inhibition
      6. 9.6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    2. 10 Multivalent Protein Recognition Using Synthetic Receptors
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Structural Properties of Protein Surfaces
      3. 10.3 Synthetic Receptors for Protein Surface Recognition
      4. 10.4 Future Perspective and Challenges
      5. Acknowledgment
      6. References
    3. 11 Multivalent Calixarenes for the Targeting of Biomacromolecules
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Binding to Proteins and Enzymes
      3. 11.3 Recognition of Carbohydrate Binding Proteins (Lectins)
      4. 11.4 Binding Polyphosphates, Oligonucleotides and Nucleic Acids
      5. 11.5 Conclusions
      6. Acknowledgements
      7. References
    4. 12 Cucurbit[n]uril Assemblies for Biomolecular Applications
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Molecular Recognition Properties of CB[n]
      3. 12.3 Control Over the Binding Affinity with CB[n]
      4. 12.4 CB[n] Recognition of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
      5. 12.5 CB[n] for Bioanalytical and Biomedical Applications
      6. 12.6 Conclusions and Outlook
      7. Acknowledgment
      8. References
    5. 13 Multivalent Lectin–Glycan Interactions in the Immune System
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Targeting Innate Immunity to Shape Adaptive Immunity
      3. 13.3 C‐type Lectin Receptors
      4. 13.4 Galectins
      5. 13.5 Siglecs
      6. 13.6 Conclusions
      7. Acknowledgment
      8. References
    6. 14 Blocking Disease Linked Lectins with Multivalent Carbohydrates
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 Haemagglutinin
      3. 14.3 LecA
      4. 14.4 LecB
      5. 14.5 Galectins
      6. 14.6 Concanavalin A
      7. 14.7 Cholera Toxin
      8. 14.8 Propeller Lectins
      9. 14.9 Conclusion
      10. Acknowledgements
      11. References
  9. Index
  10. End User License Agreement