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Nano- and Microtechnology from A - Z: From Nanosystems to Colloids and Interfaces by Laurier L. Schramm

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Tables

Table 1 Length-scales in micro-, nano-, pico-, femto-, and atto-technology

Technology Regime Length-scale Examples
Microtechnology 10−6 0.1–100 μm The diameter of a white blood cell is about 10 μm
The smallest bacteria are about 0.2 μm; typical bacteria range from one to several micrometres
Nanotechnology 10−9 0.1–100 nm The size of a typical virus is about 75–100 nm. The diameter of a DNA molecule is about 3 nm
Picotechnology 10−12 0.1–100 pm The radius of a hydrogen atom is about 23 pm; that of ha carbon atom is about 80 pm
Femtotechnology 10−15 0.1–100 fm The size of a typical atomic nucleus is about 10 fm
The time for an electron to circle an atom is about 1 fs (10−6 ns)
Attotechnology 10−18 0.1–100 am The size of an electron is about 1 am

Table 2 Some decimal-multiple prefixes for units in science and technology

SI prefix Symbol Meaning Synonym
Yotta Y 1024 Septillion
Zetta Z 1021 Sextillion
Exa E 1018 Quintrillion
Peta P 1015 Quadrillion, quad, quartrillion
Tera T 1012 Trillion
Giga G 109 Billion, thousand million, milliard
Mega M 106 Million
Kilo k 103 Thousand
Hecto h 102
Deka da 101
100
Deci d 10−1
Centi c 10−2 Hundredth
Milli m 10−3 Thousandth
Micro μ 10−6 Millionth
Nano n 10−9 Billionth
Pico p 10−12 Trillionth
Femto f 10−15 Quadrillionth
Atto a 10−18 Quintrillionth
Zepto z 10−21 Sextillionth
Yocto y 10−24 Septillionth

Table 3 Types of colloidal dispersion

Dispersed phase Dispersion ...

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