See Ion Beam Analysis.

IBB Rheometer

See Two-Point Test.

Ideal Fluid

See Inviscid Fluid.


See Imbedded Disc Retraction Method.


See Inorganic Fullerene-Like Material.


See Imbedded Fibre Retraction Method.


Inner Helmholtz plane, see Helmholtz Double Layer.

Iijima, Sumio (1939–)

A Japanese physicist and industrial scientist best known for coining the term carbon nanotube and demonstrating double-walled carbon nanotubes, both in 1991. He also discovered single-walled nanotubes in 1993. References [36, 172].

Illuminating Lens

(Microscopy) There are several kinds of illuminating lenses in microscopy. Their purpose is to focus the illuminating light onto a specimen in a particular way. For example, Köhler illumination refers to a condenser lens and diaphragm system designed and adjusted so as to provide bright, uniform illumination of a specimen across the full field of view. A condenser lens is a lens placed below (or in) a microscope stage but in the light path, in order to concentrate the illumination on the sample being studied. An Abbe condenser is used to provide a concentrated cone of light that illuminates the specimen being examined with uniform intensity over the entire field of view. See also Abbe Condenser. A dark-field condenser lens provides a specific kind of cone-shaped illuminating light needed for dark-field microscopy. See Dark-Field Microscopy. An illuminating lens is usually also associated with one or more diaphragms, which ...

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