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National Association of Broadcasters Engineering Handbook, 11th Edition by Garrison C. Cavell

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Chapter5.7

Closed Caption Services

Chris Homer

Public Broadcasting Service

Arlington, VA

Introduction

Captions provide a written representation of spoken audio along with pertinent information on other audible actions (e.g., gunshot, or creaky door). Subtitles are simply representation of a spoken word or as a translation for alternate language (e.g., Spanish, French). Outside the United States and Canada the term subtitles is used to describe both use cases.

Closed and open captions for television are considered access services. Open captions are burned into the video and cannot be disabled. Closed captioning is the ability to present caption information that is hidden until requested by the viewer. This method is preferred over open captions, ...

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