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Natural Gas Processing

Book Description

Natural gas is considered the dominant worldwide bridge between fossil fuels of today and future resources of tomorrow. Thanks to the recent shale boom in North America, natural gas is in a surplus and quickly becoming a major international commodity. Stay current with conventional and now unconventional gas standards and procedures with Natural Gas Processing: Technology and Engineering Design. Covering the entire natural gas process, Bahadori's must-have handbook provides everything you need to know about natural gas, including:

  • Fundamental background on natural gas properties and single/multiphase flow factors
  • How to pinpoint equipment selection criteria, such as US and international standards, codes, and critical design considerations
  • A step-by-step simplification of the major gas processing procedures, like sweetening, dehydration, and sulfur recovery
  • Detailed explanation on plant engineering and design steps for natural gas projects, helping managers and contractors understand how to schedule, plan, and manage a safe and efficient processing plant
  • Covers both conventional and unconventional gas resources such as coal bed methane and shale gas
  • Bridges natural gas processing with basic and advanced engineering design of natural gas projects including real world case studies
  • Digs deeper with practical equipment sizing calculations for flare systems, safety relief valves, and control valves

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. About the Author
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1. Overview of Natural Gas Resources
    1. 1.1. The formation of natural gas
    2. 1.2. Conventional natural gas resources
    3. 1.3. Gas reservoir fluids
    4. 1.4. Unconventional natural gas resources
    5. 1.5. Hydraulic fracturing
  9. Chapter 2. Natural Gas Properties
    1. 2.1. Fluid distribution in reservoir
    2. 2.2. Phase behavior of hydrocarbon systems
    3. 2.3. Pressure–volume–temperature properties of hydrocarbon fluids
    4. 2.4. Gas compressibility factor
    5. 2.5. Equation of state
    6. 2.6. Gas specific gravity
    7. 2.7. Gas density
    8. 2.8. Specific volume
    9. 2.9. Isothermal compressibility of gases
    10. 2.10. Gas formation volume factor
    11. 2.11. Standard volume
    12. 2.12. Acentric factor
    13. 2.13. Viscosity
    14. 2.14. Thermal conductivity
    15. 2.15. Gross heating value of natural gases
  10. Chapter 3. Single-phase and Multiphase Flow in Natural Gas Production Systems
    1. 3.1. Basic fluid flow theory
    2. 3.2. Process pipe sizing for plants located onshore single phase
    3. 3.3. Process pipe sizing for plants located offshore
    4. 3.4. Transmission pipelines
    5. 3.5. Two-phase mixture properties
    6. 3.6. Two-phase flow pressure drop
    7. 3.7. General aspects in design of piping systems in oil, gas, and petrochemical plants
    8. 3.8. Isometric drawings
    9. 3.9. Line identification list
    10. 3.10. Pipe supports
    11. 3.11. Pressure testing diagram
    12. 3.12. Tie-in diagram
    13. 3.13. Above-ground piping systems
    14. 3.14. Valves
    15. 3.15. Flanges
    16. 3.16. Instrument piping
    17. 3.17. Sample systems
    18. 3.18. Vents and drains
    19. 3.19. Blow-down
    20. 3.20. Utility piping
    21. 3.21. Piping adjacent to equipment
    22. 3.22. Piping flexibility
    23. 3.23. Piping supports
    24. 3.24. Insulation
    25. 3.25. Piping connections to existing plant
    26. 3.26. Underground piping systems
  11. Chapter 4. Gas–Liquid Separators
    1. 4.1. Gravity settling
    2. 4.2. Gas–liquid separators in oil and gas processing
    3. 4.3. Conventional gas–liquid separators
    4. 4.4. Design criteria of separators
    5. 4.5. Gas–liquid separator sizing
    6. 4.6. Specification sheet
    7. 4.7. Mist eliminator type and installation point
    8. 4.8. Centrifugal gas–liquid separators
    9. 4.9. Flare knock-out drums
    10. 4.10. Gas–liquid filter separators
    11. 4.11. Process requirements of vessels, reactors, and separators
    12. 4.12. Nature of the feed
    13. 4.13. Solid–liquid separators
    14. 4.14. Typical equations, which can be used for terminal velocity calculation
    15. 4.15. Vessels
  12. Chapter 5. Gas Compressors
    1. 5.1. Type selection criteria
    2. 5.2. Centrifugal compressors
    3. 5.3. Design criteria
    4. 5.4. Reciprocating compressors
    5. 5.5. Axial compressors
    6. 5.6. Screw compressors
    7. 5.7. Rotary compressors
    8. 5.8. Compressor cooling water jacket
    9. 5.9. Atmospheric pressure
    10. 5.10. Specification sheets
    11. 5.11. Material for axial and centrifugal compressors and expander-compressors
    12. 5.12. Centrifugal and axial compressors
    13. 5.13. Integrally geared compressors
    14. 5.14. Expander-compressors
  13. Chapter 6. Blow-Down and Flare Systems
    1. 6.1. Blow-down system for vapor relief stream
    2. 6.2. Blow-down system for liquid relief stream
    3. 6.3. Design of disposal system components
    4. 6.4. Sizing a knock-out drum
    5. 6.5. Quench drum
    6. 6.6. Flares
    7. 6.7. Burning pits
    8. 6.8. Determination of liquid level in a horizontal vessel
    9. 6.9. Sample calculation for sizing a flare stack
    10. 6.10. Process design of emergency measures
  14. Chapter 7. Safety Relive Valves Design
    1. 7.1. Provisions of pressure safety relief valves
    2. 7.2. Provisions of temperature safety valves
    3. 7.3. Provisions of vacuum safety valves
    4. 7.4. Provisions of rupture disks
    5. 7.5. Spare safety valves
    6. 7.6. Selection of type
    7. 7.7. Closed spring type valves
    8. 7.8. Safety valves with lifting devices
    9. 7.9. Temperature safety relief valves
    10. 7.10. Safety valve caps
    11. 7.11. Safety valve drains
    12. 7.12. Rupture disc types
    13. 7.13. Safety valve bonnet
    14. 7.14. Set pressure
    15. 7.15. Pressure safety or relief valve set pressure
    16. 7.16. Temperature safety valve set pressure
    17. 7.17. Rupture disc set pressure
    18. 7.18. Vacuum relief valve set pressure
    19. 7.19. Sizing
    20. 7.20. Vacuum relief valve sizing
    21. 7.21. Temperature safety valve sizing
    22. 7.22. Rupture disc sizing
    23. 7.23. Emergency vapor depressuring systems
    24. 7.24. Arrangement of safety relief valves
    25. 7.25. Location on vessels
    26. 7.26. Location of safety valve nozzles to minimize turbulence
    27. 7.27. Location of safety valve nozzles to minimize pulsation
    28. 7.28. Inlet piping of safety relief valves
    29. 7.29. Discharge piping of safety relief valves
    30. 7.30. Block valves
    31. 7.31. Discharge piping support
    32. 7.32. Position
    33. 7.33. Discharge piping of temperature safety valves
    34. 7.34. Venting and draining philosophy
    35. 7.35. Vapor venting
    36. 7.36. Liquid venting
    37. 7.37. Safety valve bonnet venting
    38. 7.38. Safety valve draining
    39. 7.39. Sizing for gas or vapor relief
    40. 7.40. Sizing for liquid relief
    41. 7.41. Material and engineering for pressure and vacuum relief devices
    42. 7.42. Design of rupture disks
    43. 7.43. Material
    44. 7.44. Inspection and shop tests
    45. 7.45. Marking, documentation, and preparation for shipment
    46. 7.46. General specification for springs of pressure relief valves
    47. 7.47. Testing and dimensional checks
  15. Chapter 8. Sizing of Valve and Control Valve
    1. 8.1. Manual valves
    2. 8.2. Check valves
    3. 8.3. Control valves
    4. 8.4. Control valve sizing
    5. 8.5. Calculating Cv for liquids
    6. 8.6. Liquid sizing examples
    7. 8.7. Calculating Cv for gases
    8. 8.8. Calculating Cv for two phase flow
    9. 8.9. Engineering and material for control valves
    10. 8.10. Control valve body size and flange rating
    11. 8.11. Control valve characteristics
    12. 8.12. Control valve manifold design
    13. 8.13. Control valve block and bypass valves
    14. 8.14. Control valve packing and sealing
    15. 8.15. Control valve noise and vibration caused by sonic flow
    16. 8.16. Control valve actuators
    17. 8.17. Actuator construction materials
  16. Chapter 9. Natural Gas Dehydration
    1. 9.1. Phase behavior of dehydrated natural gas
    2. 9.2. Water content of natural gases
    3. 9.3. Gas water content prediction using generalized charts
    4. 9.4. Gas water content prediction using empirical methods
    5. 9.5. Methods based on EOS
    6. 9.6. Hydrates in natural gas systems
    7. 9.7. Thermodynamic model for the hydrate phase
    8. 9.8. Hydrate predictions for high CO2/H2S content gases
    9. 9.9. Hydrate inhibition
    10. 9.10. Natural gas dehydration methods
    11. 9.11. Adsorption of water by a solid
  17. Chapter 10. Natural Gas Sweetening
    1. 10.1. Chemical solvent processes
    2. 10.2. Process selection
    3. 10.3. Chemical reaction processes
    4. 10.4. Simplified design calculations
    5. 10.5. General considerations
    6. 10.6. Corrosion in gas sweetening plants
    7. 10.7. Flash tank
    8. 10.8. Combined physical/chemical purification processes
    9. 10.9. Carbonate process
    10. 10.10. Physical absorption methods
    11. 10.11. Solid bed sweetening methods (batch Processes)
    12. 10.12. Process design
  18. Chapter 11. Sulfur Recovery
    1. 11.1. The Claus process
    2. 11.2. Technology overview
    3. 11.3. Acid gas enrichment
    4. 11.4. Oxygen enrichment
    5. 11.5. Reheat methods
    6. 11.6. Combustion operation
    7. 11.7. Sulfur condenser operation
    8. 11.8. Waste heat recovery operation
    9. 11.9. Catalyst converter operation
    10. 11.10. Claus tail gas treating process selection
    11. 11.11. Contact condenser (two-stage quench)
    12. 11.12. Solvent selection criteria in the tail gas unit
    13. 11.13. Ammonia destruction in a TGU (RACTM)
    14. 11.14. BSR Selectox
  19. Chapter 12. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Recovery
    1. 12.1. Properties
    2. 12.2. Natural gas liquids processing
    3. 12.3. Fractionation
    4. 12.4. Packed columns
    5. 12.5. Basic design requirements
    6. 12.6. Fractionation and system configuration
    7. 12.7. Absorption/stripping
    8. 12.8. Control and optimization
    9. 12.9. Storing and handling of liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs)
    10. 12.10. Design considerations
    11. 12.11. Transfer of LPG within the off-Site facilities of oil and gas processing (OGP) plants
    12. 12.12. Pressure storage spheres for LPG
    13. 12.13. Material selection
    14. 12.14. General information
    15. 12.15. Design of pressure storage spheres
    16. 12.16. Nozzles and connections
    17. 12.17. Mountings
    18. 12.18. Access facilities
    19. 12.19. Fabrication
    20. 12.20. Insulation
  20. Chapter 13. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
    1. 13.1. The LNG chain
    2. 13.2. The LNG liquefaction facility
    3. 13.3. Liquefaction process
    4. 13.4. LNG storage
    5. 13.5. In-tank pump process objectives
    6. 13.6. LNG shipping
    7. 13.7. Liquefaction and refrigeration
    8. 13.8. Basic single flow LNG process
    9. 13.9. Multistage MR process
    10. 13.10. Mixed fluid cascade process
    11. 13.11. Classification of natural gas liquefaction processes
    12. 13.12. Type of LNG plants
    13. 13.13. Liquefaction cycle for LNG FPSO
    14. 13.14. Proposed LNG liquefaction processes for FPSO
    15. 13.15. Storage and transfer facilities of LNG
  21. Chapter 14. Basic Engineering Design for Natural Gas Processing Projects
    1. 14.1. Contents of BEDP
    2. 14.2. Items common for all units
    3. 14.3. Manuals
    4. 14.4. Individual items for each unit
    5. 14.5. Specifications and data sheets
    6. 14.6. Drawings
    7. 14.7. Recommended practice for feasibility studies
    8. 14.8. Prefeasibility studies
    9. 14.9. Outline of prefeasibility study
    10. 14.10. Feasibility studies
    11. 14.11. Production program and plant capacity
    12. 14.12. Technology choice
    13. 14.13. Selection of machinery and equipment
    14. 14.14. Civil engineering works
    15. 14.15. Estimates of overall investment costs (capital cost estimates)
    16. 14.16. Organization and overhead costs
    17. 14.17. Human resources
    18. 14.18. Implementation, planning, and budgeting
    19. 14.19. Financial analysis and investment appraisal
    20. 14.20. Method of investment appraisal
    21. 14.21. Break-even analysis
    22. 14.22. Preparation of basic engineering design data
    23. 14.23. Data preparation of utilities (utility summary tables)
    24. 14.24. Data preparation of effluents
    25. 14.25. Data preparation of catalysts and chemicals
  22. Chapter 15. Detailed Engineering and Design for Natural Gas Processing Projects
    1. 15.1. Detailed implementation plan
    2. 15.2. Project schedule and control services
    3. 15.3. Quality assurance and control
    4. 15.4. Detailed design and engineering
    5. 15.5. Procurements services
    6. 15.6. Supply of materials
    7. 15.7. Detail design & engineering documents
    8. 15.8. Supply of spare parts, miscellaneous equipment and materials, chemicals and catalysts
    9. 15.9. Reimbursable items
    10. 15.10. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams
    11. 15.11. Identification and numbering of equipment
    12. 15.12. Description of equipment
    13. 15.13. Description of instrumentation
    14. 15.14. Material balance table
    15. 15.15. Piping and equipment symbols
    16. 15.16. Piping & instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs)
    17. 15.17. Minimum information to be shown on P&IDs
    18. 15.18. Equipment indication
    19. 15.19. Instrumentation
    20. 15.20. Piping
    21. 15.21. Special requirements
    22. 15.22. General notes
    23. 15.23. Design criteria for preparation of P&IDs
    24. 15.24. Bypass for safety/relief valve
    25. 15.25. Criteria for utility flow diagrams
    26. 15.26. Preparation of P&IDs
    27. 15.27. Handling of licensed process
    28. 15.28. Revisions of P&ID
    29. 15.29. Block and bypass valves for control valve
    30. 15.30. Philosophy of instrumentation installation
  23. Chapter 16. Start-up Sequence and Commissioning Procedures
    1. 16.1. Preparation prior to initial start-up
    2. 16.2. Final inspection of vessels
    3. 16.3. Flushing of lines
    4. 16.4. Instruments
    5. 16.5. Acid cleaning of compressor lines
    6. 16.6. Breaking-in pumps
    7. 16.7. Breaking-in compressors
    8. 16.8. Dry-out and boil-out
    9. 16.9. Catalyst loading
    10. 16.10. Tightness test
    11. 16.11. Normal start-up procedures
    12. 16.12. Catalytic units reactor section air purging and gas blanketing
    13. 16.13. Heat exchanger activation
    14. 16.14. Vacuum test
    15. 16.15. Establish flow in the unit
    16. 16.16. Inhibitor/chemical injections
    17. 16.17. Typical acid cleaning procedure for compressor lines
    18. 16.18. The acid-cleaning operation
    19. 16.19. Typical heater dry-out procedure
    20. 16.20. Typical chemical boil-out sequence
    21. 16.21. Basic considerations in preparing operating manuals
    22. 16.22. Safety manual/quality manual
    23. 16.23. Non-licensed processes
    24. 16.24. Noteworthy points
    25. 16.25. Design basis
    26. 16.26. Plant technical and equipment manuals
  24. Glossary of Terms
  25. Index