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Natural Language Processing and Cognitive Science

Book Description

Peer reviewed articles from the Natural Language Processing and Cognitive Science (NLPCS) 2014 meeting in October 2014 workshop.The meeting fosters interactions among researchers and practitioners in NLP by taking a Cognitive Science perspective. Articles cover topics such as artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology and language learning.

Table of Contents

  1. De Gruyter Proceedings
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Preface
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Workshop Chairs
  7. Benchmarking Automated Text Correction Services
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Prior Work on Essay Analysis
    3. 3 Method
      1. 3.1 Materials
      2. 3.2 Procedure
      3. 3.3 Analysis
    4. 4 Results
    5. 5 Discussion
      1. 5.1 Relation to Traditional Teacher Feedback
      2. 5.2 Proposal: Service in Support of Development
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. Bibliography
  8. Enhancing Word Sense Disambiguation Using A Hybrid Knowledge-Based Technique
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 WordNet
    3. 3 The Original Lesk’s Algorithm
    4. 4 Related work
    5. 5 Semantic Relatedness and Similarity
    6. 6 Jiang & Conrath’s Similarity Measure
    7. 7 Method
    8. 8 Results and Discussion
    9. 9 Conclusion
    10. Bibliography
  9. Disambiguating Distributional Neighbors Using a Lexical Substitution Dataset
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 The Task
    3. 3 The Data
      1. 3.1 The SemDis 2014 Substitution Dataset
      2. 3.2 The Distributional Thesaurus
    4. 4 Method
    5. 5 Experiment
      1. 5.1 Gold Standard for Neighbor Disambiguation
      2. 5.2 Rule-Based Decision System
    6. 6 Results
      1. 6.1 Qualitative Analysis of the Results
      2. 6.2 Comparison with a First-Order Method
    7. 7 Conclusion
    8. Bibliography
  10. An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Graph-Based Semi-Supervised Learning
      1. 2.1 Graph Transduction Model
      2. 2.2 Normal Form Games
    3. 3 WSD Games
      1. 3.1 Graph Construction
      2. 3.2 Strategy Space
      3. 3.3 System Dynamics
    4. 4 Experimental Results
      1. 4.1 Conclusion
    5. Bibliography
  11. The Main Challenge of Semi-Automatic Term Extraction Methods
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Related Work
    3. 3 Evaluation of Traditional Term Extraction Methods
      1. 3.1 Term Extraction Methods
      2. 3.2 Results and Discussion
    4. 4 Conclusions and Future Work
    5. Bibliography
  12. News Text Segmentation in Human Perception
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Related Works
    3. 3 Data
    4. 4 Methodology
      1. 4.1 Experiments with Informants
      2. 4.2 Computational Experiments
    5. 5 Results
      1. 5.1 Experiment 1: Keyword Extraction
      2. 5.2 Experiment 2: Discourse Degmentation
      3. 5.3 Experiment 3: Syntagmatic Segmentation
      4. 5.4 Experiment 4: Text Coherence and Cohesion
    6. 6 Conclusions
    7. Acknowledgement
    8. Bibliography
  13. Preliminary Study of TV Caption Presentation Method for Aphasia Sufferers and Supporting System to Summarize TV captions
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Guidelines of Summarized TV Captions for Aphasia Sufferers
      1. 2.1 Overview of Guideline
      2. 2.2 Rules of Paraphrasing
      3. 2.3 Rules of Deletion
      4. 2.4 Rules of Symbols
    3. 3 Summarized TV Caption of Evaluation
      1. 3.1 Experimental Results and Discussion
    4. 4 Supporting System to Summarize
      1. 4.1 Rule for Supporting System
      2. 4.2 Preliminary Experiment to Evaluate Supporting System
    5. 5 Conclusion
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. Bibliography
  14. Extraction of Concrete Entities and Part-Whole Relations
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 State of Art on Extraction of Part-Whole Relations
    3. 3 Theoretical Framework
      1. 3.1 Axial Properties
      2. 3.2 Axial Properties and Place Adverbs
      3. 3.3 Adjectives
    4. 4 Methodology
      1. 4.1 Part-Of-Speech Tagging
      2. 4.2 Standardizing POS
      3. 4.3 Chunking
    5. 5 Removing Noise
      1. 5.1 Obtaining Non-Relevant Adjectives
      2. 5.2 Obtaining Non-Relevant Nouns
      3. 5.3 Removing Non-Relevant Nouns and Adjectives from Phrases
      4. 5.4 Extracting Part-Whole Relations
    6. 6 Results
      1. 6.1 Sources of Textual Information
      2. 6.2 Other Resources
      3. 6.3 Analysis of Results
    7. 7 Conclusions
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. Bibliography
  15. Human Association Network and Text Collection
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 The Network
    3. 3 The Network Extraction Driven by a Text-Based Stimulus
      1. 3.1 Extraction Procedure
      2. 3.2 The Control Procedure
    4. 4 Tests of the Network Extracting Procedure
      1. 4.1 The Corpora to Perform Tests
      2. 4.2 Corpus-Based Primary Stimulus Sub-Graph Extraction
      3. 4.3 Evaluation of Extracted Sub-Graph Quality
    5. 5 Brief Discussion of Results and Related Work
    6. Bibliography
  16. Using Function Words for Authorship Attribution: Bag-Of-Words vs. Sequential Rules
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Sequential Rule Extraction
      1. 2.1 Classification Scheme
    3. 3 Experimental Setup
      1. 3.1 Data Set
    4. 4 Results
    5. 5 Conclusion
    6. Bibliography
  17. Recognition of Discursive Verbal Politeness
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Background
    3. 3 Why Discursive Verbal Politeness?
      1. 3.1 Discursive Politeness Dimensions
      2. 3.2 Categorization of the Verbal Phrase
    4. 4 Methodology
      1. 4.1 Pre-Processing
      2. 4.2 Politeness Verbal Phrase Proposal
      3. 4.3 Evaluation
    5. 5 Conclusion and Discussion
    6. Bibliography
  18. Politeness versus Perceived Engagement: An Experimental Study
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Politeness Theory
    3. 3 Adding to the FTA-Weight Formula
    4. 4 Method
      1. 4.1 Politeness Strategies
      2. 4.2 Strategy Selection
      3. 4.3 Engagement Conditions & Questionnaire
    5. 5 Results
    6. 6 Discussion
    7. 7 Conclusion
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. Bibliography
  19. Sentiment, Polarity and Function Analysis in Bibliometrics: A Review
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Citation Sentiment Analysis
    3. 3 Citation Context Identification and Detection of Implicit Citations
    4. 4 Citation Purpose Classification and Citation Polarity Classification
    5. 5 Discussion
    6. 6 Conclusions
    7. Bibliography
  20. The Detection and Analysis of Bi-Polar Phrases and Polarity Conflicts
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Fine-Grained Polarity Lexicon
    3. 3 Phrasal Level Sentiment Composition
    4. 4 Polar Verbs: Effects and Expectations
    5. 5 Empirical Investigation
      1. 5.1 NP-Level
      2. 5.2 Verb Level
    6. 6 Related Work
    7. 7 Conclusion
    8. Bibliography
  21. Automatically Evaluating Atypical Language in Narratives by Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Related Work
    3. 3 Corpus & Analysis Objectives
      1. 3.1 A Dataset of Narratives by Children with ASD
      2. 3.2 Automatic Analysis of ASD-Specific Language
    4. 4 Analysis of Linguistic Features
      1. 4.1 General Language Competence
      2. 4.2 Topic Coherence
      3. 4.3 Sentiment & References to Mental States
    5. 5 Discussion
    6. 6 Conclusion
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. Bibliography
  22. How to Make Right Decisions Based on Currupt Information and Poor Counselors
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Reflections on the Test Set
      1. 2.1 Measuring Performance of Questions Answering Systems
      2. 2.2 Missing the Correct Answer
      3. 2.3 Effect on the TREC-11 Corpus
    3. 3 Evaluation
      1. 3.1 A Brief Overview of OpenEphyra’s Architecture
      2. 3.2 Search Engines, Number of Queries, and Number of Documents
      3. 3.3 Answer Type Dependence
      4. 3.4 System Combination
    4. 4 Implementation in Halef
    5. 5 Conclusion and Future Work
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. Bibliography
  23. Meta-Learning for Fast Dialog System Habituation to New Users
    1. 1 Motivation
    2. 2 Related Work
    3. 3 Outline
    4. 4 Meta-Learning Introduced via a Pilot Experiment
      1. 4.1 Data Sample
      2. 4.2 Formulation as Optimization Problem
      3. 4.3 A Concrete Algorithm – Laplace Smoothing
    5. 5 Future Work
    6. 6 Summary
    7. Bibliography
  24. Evaluation of Freely Available Speech Synthesis Voices for Halef
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Experimental Setup
    3. 3 Results
    4. 4 Discussion
      1. 4.1 Ranking
      2. 4.2 Unit Selection vs. HSMM
      3. 4.3 Festival vs. Mary
    5. 5 Conclusions
    6. 6 Future Work
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. Bibliography
  25. You Shall Find the Target Via its Companion Words: Specifications of a Navigational Tool to Help Authors to Overcome the Tip-Of-The-Tongue Problem
    1. 1 The Problem: How to Find the Word that is Eluding You
    2. 2 Search Strategies Function of Variable Cognitive States
    3. 3 Architecture and Roadmap
    4. 4 Formalisation of Resources and Discussion
    5. 5 Outlook and Conclusion
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. Bibliography
  26. Topic Modeling for Entity Linking Using Keyphrase
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Literature Review
    3. 3 Methodology and Contribution
      1. 3.1 Document Pre-Processing
      2. 3.2 Query Expansion
      3. 3.3 Candidate Generation
      4. 3.4 Candidate Ranking and NIL Clustering
    4. 4 Evaluation Framework
    5. 5 Results and Analysis
    6. 6 Conclusions and Future Work
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Bibliography
  27. Extraction of Polish Multiword Expressions
    1. 1 Introduction
      1. 1.1 Related Work
      2. 1.2 Anatomy of Polish Nominal MWEs
    2. 2 MWE Extraction Methods
      1. 2.1 Extraction Using the Wikipedia as a Dictionary
        1. 2.1.1 Dictionary Pattern Matching (DM)
      2. 2.2 Extraction Using Syntactic Patterns
        1. 2.2.1 Pattern Construction
      3. 2.3 Compound Methods
    3. 3 Tests and Results
      1. 3.1 Test Results
      2. 3.2 Future Work
    4. 4 Conclusions
    5. Bibliography
  28. Beyond Classical Set
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Typed Sets
      1. 2.1 Notion and Notation
      2. 2.2 Formation Rules
      3. 2.3 Operations on Sets
      4. 2.4 Predication and Graded Membership
      5. 2.5 Quantification
    3. 3 A Moment of Reflection
    4. 4 Application
      1. 4.1 Modification
      2. 4.2 Non-Existents
      3. 4.3 Non-Extensional Contexts
    5. 5 Conclusion
    6. Bibliography
  29. Exploring the Effects of Root Expansion, Sentence Splitting and Ontology on Arabic Answer Selection
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Related Works
    3. 3 Proposed System ALQASIM 2.0
      1. 3.1 Document Analysis
        1. 3.1.1 Inverted Index
        2. 3.1.2 Morphological Analysis Module
        3. 3.1.3 Sentence Splitting Module
        4. 3.1.4 Root Expansion Module
        5. 3.1.5 Numeric Expansion Module
        6. 3.1.6 Ontology-Based Semantic Expansion Module
      2. 3.2 Question Analysis
      3. 3.3 Answer Selection
    4. 4 Performance Evaluation
    5. 5 Discussion and Future Work
    6. Bibliography
  30. Computer Assisted Translation of Ancient Texts: The Babylonian Talmud Case Study
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 The Babylonian Talmud
      1. 2.1 Historical and Content Analysis
      2. 2.2 Linguistic and Stylistic Analysis
      3. 2.3 Statistics and Comparison with Other Texts
      4. 2.4 Relevant Aspects of the BT for the CAT System
    3. 3 Features of the CAT System
      1. 3.1 The Translation Memory
      2. 3.2 Additional Tools
    4. 4 Evaluation
      1. 4.1 Translation Memory Analysis
      2. 4.2 Translation Suggestions Goodness
    5. 5 Conclusions and Future Works
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. Bibliography
  31. A Rational Statistical Parser
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Background
    3. 3 Parsing Framework
      1. 3.1 Entropies, Probabilities and Lengths
      2. 3.2 Surprisal and Entropy Reduction
      3. 3.3 Implemented Model
    4. 4 Experiments
      1. 4.1 Formulation Refinement
      2. 4.2 Results
      3. 4.3 Discussion
    5. 5 Conclusion
    6. Bibliography