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Particle Swarm Optimization

Abstract

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was developed by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995 based on the swarm behavior, such as fish and bird schooling in nature, which has generated much interest in the ever-expanding area of swarm intelligence. There are over two dozen PSO variants, and hybridization with other algorithms has also been investigated. This chapter reviews the basic ideas of particle swarm optimization, some common variants, and convergence properties.

Keywords

Convergence

PSO variants

Particle swarm optimization

Swarm intelligence

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was developed by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995 based on swarm behavior in nature, such as fish and bird schooling. Since then, PSO has ...

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