Firefly algorithms (FA) appeared about five years ago, in 2008, and the literature has expanded dramatically with diverse applications. In this chapter, we introduce the standard firefly algorithm, then briefly review the variants, together with a selection of recent publications. We also analyze the characteristics of FA and try to answer the question of why FA is so efficient.
Nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms, especially those based on swarm intelligence, have attracted much attention in the last 10 years. The firefly algorithm (FA) appeared about five years ago in 2008, and its literature has expanded dramatically ...