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INTRODUCTION

Since the advent of Project Management Institute's (PMI) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” (PMBOK® Guide) [1]1 in early 1983, the number of practitioners2 has increased significantly as well as the range and level of complexities of programs and projects. For the purpose of this practice guide, complexity is a characteristic of a program or project or its environment that is difficult to manage due to human behavior, system behavior, and ambiguity. Complexity is not directly proportional to the size of a program or project; small programs and projects may contain substantial complexity. In any program and project with complexity, there are inherent risks and uncertainties that need to be addressed.

Complexity ...

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