3

ENCOUNTERING COMPLEXITY

3.1 Three Categories of Complexity

Throughout history, most programs and projects have contained elements of complexity. Using fundamental program and project management approaches has proven effective in taking care of the influences of these complexities and delivering successful outcomes. In today's world, as supply chains, markets, and technology become global, program and project managers are increasingly encountering more and more complexity in programs and projects. Fundamental, rapid changes in societies and economies, including innovations in the manufacturing and delivery of products, have increased complexity dramatically in programs and projects. The anticipation of the effects of complexity and the management ...

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