Chapter 2

The Civil War era and its legacy years 1860–1870


The National Academy of Sciences was established at the height of the Civil War, and this chapter delves into the historical background and context of that important event in American science policy, exploring the long-evident symbiosis of war and science. Another important piece of legislation during this period, discussed in detail, is the Land Grant College Act of 1862, which still stands as one of the hallmarks and great successes of American science and technology policy. The chapter also covers some personalities of the era who played vital roles in the evolution of policy related to science/technology: Alexander Bache (and the members of his Scientific Lazzaroni), Charles ...

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