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Network Infrastructure and Architecture: Designing High-Availability Networks by Carl McCrosky, Daniel Minoli, Krzysztof Iniewski

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7

VLSI INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Integrated Circuits, VLSI, and CMOS

7.1.2 Classification of Integrated Circuits

7.1.3 Looking Ahead

7.2 Integrated Circuits for Data Networking

7.2.1 PMD and PHY Devices (Layer 1)

7.2.2 Framers and Mappers (Layer 2)

7.2.3 Packet Processing Devices (Layer 3)

7.3 Chip I/O Interfaces

7.3.1 Serial vs. Parallel I/O

7.3.2 Networking I/O Standards

7.3.3 Design of Data Networking I/O Interfaces

7.3.4 Memory I/O Interfaces

7.3.5 Microprocessor I/O Interfaces

7.4 Examples of Chip Architectures

7.4.1 Time-Slice Architecture

7.4.2 SONET Framer Architecture

7.4.3 Network Processor Architecture

7.5 VLSI Design Methodology

7.5.1 Design Specification

7.5.2 Functional Design and RTL Coding

7.5.3 Functional Verification

7.5.4 Design Synthesis

7.5.5 Physical Design and Verification

Key Points

Acknowledgments

References

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.1.1 Integrated Circuits, VLSI, and CMOS

Integrated circuits (ICs) or VLSI chips, as they are frequently called, control almost everything in our external environment, from IP routers that process Internet traffic, PCs, cell phones, and car engines to household appliances. They are complex electronic systems embedded in a small volume of highly processed silicon. Although the cost of designing and developing them can be very high, when spread across millions of production units, the individual IC cost can be very low. ICs have migrated consistently to smaller feature sizes over the years, allowing more circuitry to ...

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