TCP State Model

TCP is a reliable transport layer protocol that offers a full duplex connection byte stream service. The bandwidth of TCP makes it appropriate for wide area IP networks where there is a higher chance of packet loss or reordering. What really complicates TCP are the flow control and congestion control mechanisms. These mechanisms often interfere with each other, so proper tuning is critical for high-performance networks. We start by explaining the TCP state machine, then describe in detail how to tune TCP, depending on the actual deployment. We also describe how to scale the TCP connection-handling capacity of servers by increasing the size of TCP connection state data structures.

FIGURE 3-8 presents an alternative view of the ...

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