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Non Conventional Energy Resources

Book Description

With energy sustainability at the forefront of public discussion worldwide, there is a vital requirement to foster an understanding of safe alternative sources of energy such as solar and wind power. Tailored to the requirements of undergraduate students of engineering, Non-conventional Energy Resources provides a comprehensive coverage of the basic principles, working and utilization of all key renewable power sources"solar, wind, hydel, biomass, hyower and fuel cells. The book also consists of several solved and unsolved questions for thorough practice and revision.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Preface
  5. About the Author
  6. Chapter 1: NCER—An Overview
    1. 1.1 History of Human Civilization
      1. 1.1.1 Primitive Man
      2. 1.1.2 Hunting Man
      3. 1.1.3 Early Agricultural Man
      4. 1.1.4 Advanced Agricultural Man
      5. 1.1.5 Industrial Man
      6. 1.1.6 Technological Man
      7. 1.1.7 Eco-friendly Technological Man
    2. 1.2 World Population and Energy Consumption Pattern Projection
    3. 1.3 Energy Systems Model
      1. 1.3.1 Production and Sustenance Activities
      2. 1.3.2 Inputs
      3. 1.3.3 Outputs
      4. 1.3.4 Feedback
      5. 1.3.5 Dissipation
    4. 1.4 System Acceptability Index (δ)
    5. 1.5 Causes of Energy Scarcity
      1. 1.5.1 Increasing Population
      2. 1.5.2 Increasing Energy Usage or Consumption
      3. 1.5.3 Uneven Distribution of Energy Resources
      4. 1.5.4 Lacks of Technical Knowhow
    6. 1.6 Solution to Energy Crisis or Scarcity
    7. 1.7 Factors Affecting Energy Resource Development
      1. 1.7.1 Energy or Fuel Substitution or Scale of Shift
      2. 1.7.2 Energy Density
      3. 1.7.3 Power Density
      4. 1.7.4 Intermittency
      5. 1.7.5 Geographical Energy Distribution
    8. 1.8 Quality of Energy Form
    9. 1.9 Energy Resources and Classification
      1. 1.9.1 Primary and Secondary Energy Resources
      2. 1.9.2 Oil
      3. 1.9.3 Natural Gas
      4. 1.9.4 Coal
      5. 1.9.5 Uranium
      6. 1.9.6 Hydroelectric Power
    10. 1.10 Energy Transfer Frames
    11. 1.11 Energy Conversion
      1. 1.11.1 Indirect Energy Conversion
      2. 1.11.2 Hydroelectromechanical Energy Converters
      3. 1.11.3 Direct Energy Conversion
    12. 1.12 Renewable Energy
      1. 1.12.1 Worldwide Renewable Energy Availability
      2. 1.12.2 Renewable Energy in India
      3. 1.12.3 Solar Energy
      4. 1.12.4 Wind Power
      5. 1.12.5 Tidal Power
      6. 1.12.6 Wave Energy
      7. 1.12.7 Ocean Thermal Energy
      8. 1.12.8 Biomass Energy
      9. 1.12.9 Decentralized and Dispersed Generation
      10. 1.12.10 Geothermal Energy
    13. 1.13 Oil Shale
      1. 1.13.1 Extraction of Shale Oil
      2. 1.13.2 Classification of Oil Shales
      3. 1.13.3 Use of Shale Oil (Tight Oil)
      4. 1.13.4 Problems Associated with Shale Oil Production
    14. 1.14 Energy Storage
      1. 1.14.1 Hydro Pump Storage
      2. 1.14.2 Compressed Air Storage
      3. 1.14.3 Thermal Storage
      4. 1.14.4 Electrochemical Storage or Battery Storage
      5. 1.14.5 Inertial Storage
      6. 1.14.6 Hydrogen Storage
      7. 1.14.7 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
    15. 1.15 Conclusions
    16. Summary
    17. Review Questions
  7. Chapter 2: Energy from the Sun
    1. 2.1 Sun–Earth Geometric Relationship
    2. 2.2 Layer of the Sun
      1. 2.2.1 Core
      2. 2.2.2 Solar Envelope
      3. 2.2.3 Photosphere
      4. 2.2.4 Chromospheres
      5. 2.2.5 Corona
    3. 2.3 Earth-Sun Angles and their Relationships
      1. 2.3.1 Hour Angle (ω)
      2. 2.3.2 Equation of Time
      3. 2.3.3 Declination Angle (δ)
      4. 2.3.4 Latitude Angle (ϕ)
      5. 2.3.5 Solar Altitude Angle (α)
      6. 2.3.6 Solar Elevation Angle (α)
      7. 2.3.7 Surface Azimuth Angle (γ)
      8. 2.3.8 Relationship Between Different Sun–Earth Angles
      9. 2.3.9 Sunrise, Sunset, and Day length Equations
      10. 2.3.10 Solar Time
    4. 2.4 Solar Energy Reaching the Earth’s Surface
      1. 2.4.1 Problems Associated with Harnessing Full Solar Energy
      2. 2.4.2 Extraterrestrial Irradiation
    5. 2.5 Solar Thermal Energy Applications
      1. 2.5.1 Passive Systems
      2. 2.5.2 Active System
      3. 2.5.3 Direct Thermal Applications
      4. 2.5.4 Solar Electric Conversion and Applications
    6. 2.6 Solar Thermal Energy Storage
      1. 2.6.1 Sensible Heat Storage
      2. 2.6.2 Latent Heat Storage
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
  8. Chapter 3: Solar Thermal Energy Collectors
    1. 3.1 Types of Solar Collectors
      1. 3.1.1 Flat Plate Collectors
      2. 3.1.2 Concentrating Collectors
      3. 3.1.3 Comparison of Collectors
    2. 3.2 Configurations of Certain Practical Solar Thermal Collectors
      1. 3.2.1 Flat Plate Collectors
      2. 3.2.2 Glazed Flat Plate Collectors
      3. 3.2.3 Unglazed Flat Plate Solar Collectors
      4. 3.2.4 Unglazed Perforated Plate Collectors
      5. 3.2.5 Back-pass Solar Collectors
      6. 3.2.6 Batch Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors
      7. 3.2.7 Flat Plate Collectors with Flat Reflectors
      8. 3.2.8 Evacuated Tube Collectors
    3. 3.3 Material Aspects of Solar Collectors
      1. 3.3.1 Absorber
      2. 3.3.2 Glazing
      3. 3.3.3 Insulation Shell
    4. 3.4 Concentrating Collectors
      1. 3.4.1 Compound Parabolic Solar Collectors
      2. 3.4.2 Fresnel Solar Thermal Collectors
      3. 3.4.3 Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Collectors
      4. 3.4.4 Cylindrical Trough Solar Collectors
      5. 3.4.5 Parabolic Dish Systems
      6. 3.4.6 Heliostat Field Solar Collectors
    5. 3.5 Parabolic Dish–Stirling Engine System
    6. 3.6 Working of Stirling or Brayton Heat Engine
    7. 3.7 Solar Collector Systems into Building Services
    8. 3.8 Solar Water Heating Systems
      1. 3.8.1 Active Solar Water Heating Systems
      2. 3.8.2 Active Solar Space Heating
    9. 3.9 Passive Solar Water Heating Systems
      1. 3.9.1 Types of Passive Water Heaters
    10. 3.10 Applications of Solar Water Heating Systems
    11. 3.11 Active Solar Space Cooling
    12. 3.12 Solar Air Heating
    13. 3.13 Solar Dryers
      1. 3.13.1 Advantages
      2. 3.13.2 Limitations
    14. 3.14 Crop Drying
    15. 3.15 Space Cooling
    16. 3.16 Solar Cookers
      1. 3.16.1 Types of Solar Cookers
      2. 3.16.2 Advantages
      3. 3.16.3 Disadvantages
    17. 3.17 Solar Pond
      1. 3.17.1 Advantages of Solar Pond
    18. Summary
    19. Review Questions
  9. Chapter 4: Solar Cells
    1. 4.1 Need for Solar Cells
      1. 4.1.1 Components of a Solar Cell System
      2. 4.1.2 Key Elements of Silicon Solar Cell
      3. 4.1.3 Creating P-type and N-type Semiconductors
    2. 4.2 Solar Cell Materials
      1. 4.2.1 Silicon
      2. 4.2.2 Thin Film
    3. 4.3 Practical Solar Cells
    4. 4.4 Functions of a Solar Cell
      1. 4.4.1 Main Components of Photovoltaic System
    5. 4.5 Theory of Solar Cell (Photovoltaic Cell)
      1. 4.5.1 Process of Photovoltaic Potential Development
      2. 4.5.2 Junction Current (IJ)
      3. 4.5.3 Solar Cell Performance (Equivalent Circuit of a Solar Cell)
      4. 4.5.4 I–V Characteristics of Solar Cells
    6. 4.6 Efficiency of Solar Cells
      1. 4.6.1 Fill Factor
      2. 4.6.2 Factors Limiting the Efficiency of the Cell
    7. 4.7 Photovoltaic Panels (Series and Parallel Arrays)
      1. 4.7.1 Number of Solar Cell Required in Series
      2. 4.7.2 Number of Solar Cell in Parallel Strings
    8. 4.8 Application of Solar Cell Systems
      1. 4.8.1 Solar Water Pumps
      2. 4.8.2 Solar Vehicle
      3. 4.8.3 Solar Lanterns
      4. 4.8.4 Solar Panels on Spacecraft
      5. 4.8.5 Grid-connected Photovoltaic Power Systems
      6. 4.8.6 Cathodic Protection Systems
      7. 4.8.7 Electric Fences
      8. 4.8.8 Remote Lighting Systems
      9. 4.8.9 Telecommunications and Remote Monitoring Systems
      10. 4.8.10 Rural Electrification
      11. 4.8.11 Water Treatment Systems
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
  10. Chapter 5: Hydrogen Energy
    1. 5.1 Benefits of Hydrogen Energy
    2. 5.2 Hydrogen Production Technologies
      1. 5.2.1 Thermochemical Production Technologies
      2. 5.2.2 Electrolytic Production Technologies
      3. 5.2.3 Photolytic Production Technologies
    3. 5.3 Hydrogen Energy Storage
      1. 5.3.1 Compressed Gas and Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks
      2. 5.3.2 Materials-based Storage
      3. 5.3.3 Methods of Hydrogen Energy Storage
    4. 5.4 Use of Hydrogen Energy
    5. 5.5 Applications of Hydrogen Energy
      1. 5.5.1 At Home Sector
      2. 5.5.2 At Work Sector
      3. 5.5.3 At Transport and Industrial Sectors
    6. 5.6 Advantages of Hydrogen Energy
    7. 5.7 Disadvantages of Hydrogen Energy
    8. 5.8 Problems Associated with Hydrogen Energy
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
  11. Chapter 6: Wind Energy
    1. 6.1 Windmills
    2. 6.2 Wind Turbines
    3. 6.3 Energy Availability in the Wind
      1. 6.3.1 Wind Potential
      2. 6.3.2 Wind Characteristics
      3. 6.3.3 Wind into Electricity
    4. 6.4 Wind Resources
      1. 6.4.1 Worldwide Wind Energy Scenario in 2010
      2. 6.4.2 Wind Energy in India
    5. 6.5 Wind Turbine Site Selection
      1. 6.5.1 Turbine Height
      2. 6.5.2 Considerations and Guidelines for Site Selection
      3. 6.5.3 Wind Turbine Power Output Variation with Steady Wind Speed
      4. 6.5.4 Parts of a Wind Turbine
    6. 6.6 Classification and Description of Wind Machines
      1. 6.6.1 Savonius Drag-type Vertical-axis Wind Turbines
      2. 6.6.2 Darrieus Lift-type Vertical-axis Machines
      3. 6.6.3 Advantages of Vertical-axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)
      4. 6.6.4 Disadvantages of Vertical-axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)
      5. 6.6.5 Horizontal-axis Wind Turbines
    7. 6.7 Principles of Wind Energy Conversion (Aerodynamics)
      1. 6.7.1 Lift Force
      2. 6.7.2 Drag Force
      3. 6.7.3 Capturing Wind Power
    8. 6.8 Mathematical Model of Extraction of Energy from the Wind
    9. 6.9 Simple Wind Turbine Theory
      1. 6.9.1 Assumptions
      2. 6.9.2 Application of Conservation of Mass (Continuity Equation)
      3. 6.9.3 Condition for Maximum Performance Coefficient
      4. 6.9.4 Wind Speed and Pressure Variations in Ideal Wind Turbine
    10. 6.10 Characteristics of Windmill Rotors (Rotor Design)
      1. 6.10.1 Pitch
      2. 6.10.2 Tip-speed Ratio (TSR)
      3. 6.10.3 Solidity
      4. 6.10.4 Coefficient of Performance
      5. 6.10.5 Torque
    11. 6.11 Types of Generators Used With Wind Turbines
      1. 6.11.1 Induction Generator
      2. 6.11.2 Permanent Magnet Alternators
      3. 6.11.3 Synchronous Generators
      4. 6.11.4 DC Generators
      5. 6.11.5 Applications of Wind Turbines
    12. Summary
    13. Review Questions
  12. Chapter 7: Geothermal Energy
    1. 7.1 Geothermal Systems
    2. 7.2 Classifications
    3. 7.3 Geothermal Resource Utilization
      1. 7.3.1 Direct Use of Low Grade Geothermal Energy
      2. 7.3.2 Electricity Generation
      3. 7.3.3 Multi-purpose Total Energy Utilization of Geothermal Resources
    4. 7.4 Resource Exploration
      1. 7.4.1 Prospects of Geothermal Fields in India
    5. 7.5 Geothermal-Based Electric Power Generation
      1. 7.5.1 Dry Steam-based Geothermal Power Plants
      2. 7.5.2 Flash Geothermal Power Plants
      3. 7.5.3 Binary Cycle-based Geothermal Plants
      4. 7.5.4 Electrical and Mechanical Features
      5. 7.5.5 Operation of Geothermal Plants
    6. 7.6 Associated Problems
    7. 7.7 Environmental Effects
      1. 7.7.1 Gaseous and Particulate Emission
      2. 7.7.2 Land Pollution
      3. 7.7.3 Subsidence Effect
      4. 7.7.4 Seismic Hazards
      5. 7.7.5 Water Pollution
      6. 7.7.6 Biological Effects
      7. 7.7.7 Social Effects
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
  13. Chapter 8: Solid Wastes and Agricultural Refuse
    1. 8.1 Waste is Wealth
      1. 8.1.1 Incinerators
      2. 8.1.2 Pyrolysis
      3. 8.1.3 Anaerobic Digestion
      4. 8.1.4 Recycling
      5. 8.1.5 Bioenergy Conversion
    2. 8.2 Key Issues
    3. 8.3 Waste Recovery Management Scheme
      1. 8.3.1 Treatment
    4. 8.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Waste Recycling
      1. 8.4.1 Advantages of Waste Recycling
      2. 8.4.2 Disadvantages of Waste Recycling
      3. 8.4.3 Status of Municipal Solid Wastes Management in India
      4. 8.4.4 Tips on Reducing Waste and Conserving Resources (the Three R’s—Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle)
    5. 8.5 Sources and Types of Wastes
    6. 8.6 Recycling of Plastics
      1. 8.6.1 Recycling of Plastics
      2. 8.6.2 Plastic Resin Identification Code
      3. 8.6.3 Benefits of Plastic Recycling
      4. 8.6.4 Thermal Depolymerization
      5. 8.6.5 Plastic Waste to Oil Production in India
      6. 8.6.6 Waste Plastic to Electricity Generation
      7. 8.6.7 Advantages of Recycling of Plastics
      8. 8.6.8 Disadvantages of Recycling of Plastics
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
  14. Chapter 9: Biomass Energy
    1. 9.1 Biomass Production
      1. 9.1.1 Direct Methods
      2. 9.1.2 Indirect Methods
    2. 9.2 Energy Plantation
    3. 9.3 Biomass Gasification
      1. 9.3.1 Low Temperature Gasification
      2. 9.3.2 High Temperature Gasification
      3. 9.3.3 Composition and Properties of Producer Gas
      4. 9.3.4 Temperature of Gas
    4. 9.4 Theory of Gasification
    5. 9.5 Gasifier and their Classifications
    6. 9.6 Chemistry of Reaction Process in Gasification
    7. 9.7 Updraft Gasifiers
    8. 9.8 Downdraft Gasifier
    9. 9.9 Cross-Draft Gasifier
    10. 9.10 Fluidized Bed Gasification
      1. 9.10.1 Advantages and Benefits
    11. 9.11 Use of Biomass Gasifier
      1. 9.11.1 Liquid Fuels
    12. 9.12 Gasifier Biomass feed Characteristics
      1. 9.12.1 Energy Content and Bulk Density of Fuel
      2. 9.12.2 Moisture Content
      3. 9.12.3 Dust Content
      4. 9.12.4 Tar Content
      5. 9.12.5 Ash and Slagging Characteristics
      6. 9.12.6 Biomass Feed (Fuel)
    13. 9.13 Applications of Biomass Gasifiers
    14. 9.14 Cooling and Cleaning of Gas
    15. Summary
    16. Review Questions
  15. Chapter 10: Biogas Energy
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Biogas and its Composition
    3. 10.3 Anaerobic Digestion
      1. 10.3.1 Process Stages of Anaerobic Digestion
    4. 10.4 Biogas Production
      1. 10.4.1 Construction Parts of Biogas Plants
      2. 10.4.2 Working of Biogas Plant
      3. 10.4.3 Types of Biogas Plants
      4. 10.4.4 Different Models of Biogas Plants
    5. 10.5 Benefits of Biogas
    6. 10.6 Factors Affecting the Selection of a Particular Model of a Biogas Plant
    7. 10.7 Biogas Plant Feeds and their Characteristics
      1. 10.7.1 Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) Ratio
      2. 10.7.2 Advantages
      3. 10.7.3 Limitations
      4. 10.7.4 Uses
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
  16. Chapter 11: Tidal Energy
    1. 11.1 General
    2. 11.2 Tidal Energy Resource
    3. 11.3 Tidal Energy Availability
    4. 11.4 Tidal Power Generation in India
    5. 11.5 Leading Country in Tidal Power Plant Installation
    6. 11.6 Energy Availability in Tides
      1. 11.6.1 Calculation of Tidal Power
      2. 11.6.2 Tidal Stream Generator
    7. 11.7 Tidal power basin
      1. 11.7.1 Single-basin System
      2. 11.7.2 Two-basin Systems
      3. 11.7.3 Co-operating Two-basin Systems
    8. 11.8 Turbines for Tidal Power
      1. 11.8.1 Bulb-type Turbine
      2. 11.8.2 Commercial Status of Tidal Stream Devices (as on 2009)
    9. 11.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Tidal Power
    10. 11.10 Problems Faced in Exploiting Tidal Energy
    11. Summary
    12. Review Questions
  17. Chapter 12: Sea Wave Energy
    1. 12.1 General
    2. 12.2 Motion in the Sea Waves
    3. 12.3 Power Associated with Sea Waves
      1. 12.3.1 Another Wave Power Formula
    4. 12.4 Wave Energy Availability
      1. 12.4.1 Wave Energy Availability in India
    5. 12.5 Devices for Harnessing Wave Energy
      1. 12.5.1 Float or Buoy Devices
      2. 12.5.2 Oscillating Water Column Devices
      3. 12.5.3 Pendulum System
      4. 12.5.4 TAPCHAN (Tapered Channel)
      5. 12.5.5 Salter’s Duck System
      6. 12.5.6 Offshore Wave Dragon System
      7. 12.5.7 Bristol Cylinder
      8. 12.5.8 Archimedes Wave Swing Devices
    6. 12.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Wave Power
      1. 12.6.1 Advantages
      2. 12.6.2 Disadvantages
    7. 12.7 Key Issues
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
  18. Chapter 13: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Principle of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    3. 13.3 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plants
      1. 13.3.1 Land-based Power Plant
      2. 13.3.2 Floating Power Plant
    4. 13.4 Basic Rankine Cycle and its Working
      1. 13.4.1 Selection of Working Fluids
    5. 13.5 Closed Cycle, Open Cycle, and Hybrid Cycle
      1. 13.5.1 Open-cycle OTEC
      2. 13.5.2 Closed-cycle OTEC
      3. 13.5.3 OTEC Hybrid Cycle
    6. 13.6 Carnot Cycle
    7. 13.7 Application of OTEC in Addition to Produce Electricity
    8. 13.8 Advantages, Disadvantages and Benefits of OTEC
      1. 13.8.1 Advantages
      2. 13.8.2 Disadvantages
      3. 13.8.3 Benefits as a Measure of the Value of OTEC
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
  19. Chapter 14: Fuel Cell
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Schematic of Fuel Cell
      1. 14.2.1 Anode
      2. 14.2.2 Cathode
      3. 14.2.3 Electrolyte
    3. 14.3 Basic Characteristics
      1. 14.3.1 Charge Carrier
      2. 14.3.2 Performance Degradation by Contamination
      3. 14.3.3 Fuels
      4. 14.3.4 Factors Affecting the Fuel Cell Performance
      5. 14.3.5 Fuel Reforming
    4. 14.4 Fuel Cell Functionality
      1. 14.4.1 Electrical Output
    5. 14.5 Fuel Cells Versus Traditional Electricity Generation
    6. 14.6 Performances of Fuel Cells Versus Others
    7. 14.7 Fuel Cell Construction (Historical Development)
      1. 14.7.1 William Grove’s Fuel Cell
      2. 14.7.2 Hydrogen–Oxygen Fuel Cell
    8. 14.8 Types of Fuel Cells: Design
    9. 14.9 Schematic and Working of Different Types of Fuel Cell
      1. 14.9.1 Alkali Fuel Cells
      2. 14.9.2 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
      3. 14.9.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
      4. 14.9.4 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
      5. 14.9.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
    10. 14.10 Sources of Overvoltage in a Fuel Cell
      1. 14.10.1 Mixed Potential at Electrodes
      2. 14.10.2 Activation Losses
      3. 14.10.3 Ohmic Losses
      4. 14.10.4 Mass Transport Losses
    11. 14.11 Fuels for Fuel Cells
    12. 14.12 Series Parallel Connection of Fuel Cell
    13. 14.13 Advantages of Fuel Cell
    14. 14.14 Disadvantages of Fuel Cells
    15. Summary
    16. Review Questions
  20. Chapter 15: Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation
    1. 15.1 General
    2. 15.2 Electromechanical Energy Conversion Versus MHD
    3. 15.3 MHD Generator and its Working
    4. 15.4 Principle and Performances
      1. 15.4.1 Open-circuit Voltage and Power Output
      2. 15.4.2 Maximum Power Output
    5. 15.5 MHD System Components
    6. 15.6 PLASMA
      1. 15.6.1 Gas Plasma
      2. 15.6.2 Methods of Ionizing the Gas
      3. 15.6.3 Containment
      4. 15.6.4 Power Output
      5. 15.6.5 Efficiency
      6. 15.6.6 Operating Experience
    7. 15.7 Schematic Diagram and Working of Liquid Metal MHD
      1. 15.7.1 Working
      2. 15.7.2 Features and Liabilities
      3. 15.7.3 Advantages
      4. 15.7.4 Disadvantages
    8. 15.8 Types of MHD System
      1. 15.8.1 Open-cycle System
      2. 15.8.2 Closed-cycle Liquid Metal System
      3. 15.8.3 Closed-cycle Plasma MHD System
    9. 15.9 Advantages of MHD System
    10. 15.10 Disadvantages of MHD System
    11. Summary
    12. Review Questions
  21. Chapter 16: Thermoelectric Converters
    1. 16.1 Basic Configuration of Thermoelectric Converters
      1. 16.1.1 Historical Developments
    2. 16.2 Major Heat Sources-Based Thermoelectric Generators
      1. 16.2.1 Fossil Fuel Generators
      2. 16.2.2 Solar Source Generators
      3. 16.2.3 Nuclear-fuelled Generators
    3. 16.3 Principles of Operation
      1. 16.3.1 Seebeck Effect
      2. 16.3.2 Basic Theory and Operation
      3. 16.3.3 Peltier Effect
      4. 16.3.4 Thomson Effect
    4. 16.4 Thermoelectric Materials
      1. 16.4.1 Conventional Materials
      2. 16.4.2 New Materials
    5. 16.5 Analysis of a Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Conversion
      1. 16.5.1 Arrangement of Semiconductor Thermoelectric Generator
      2. 16.5.2 Efficiency and Power Output
    6. 16.6 Thermoelectric Converter Modules and Applications
    7. 16.7 Advantages and Disadvantages
      1. 16.7.1 Advantages
      2. 16.7.2 Disadvantages
    8. 16.8 Recent Ongoing Development
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
  22. Chapter 17: Thermionic Converters
    1. 17.1 General
    2. 17.2 Thermionic Energy Converter
    3. 17.3 Working of Thermionic Generator
      1. 17.3.1 Fermi Level
      2. 17.3.2 Thermionic Work Function
      3. 17.3.3 Inter-electrode Charge Distribution
      4. 17.3.4 Electron Saturation Current
      5. 17.3.5 Ion Saturation Current Density
      6. 17.3.6 Performance Analysis of Thermionic Converter
      7. 17.3.7 Other Efficiency Equations of a Thermionic Converter
    4. 17.4 Types of Thermionic Converters
      1. 17.4.1 Vacuum Thermionic Converter
      2. 17.4.2 Vapour Thermionic Converters
    5. 17.5 Material Development and Research
    6. 17.6 Applications
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
  23. Chapter 18: Concept of Energy Conservation and Energy Management
    1. 18.1 Introduction
      1. 18.1.1 Necessity of Energy Management
    2. 18.2 Concept of Energy Management
      1. 18.2.1 Wasted Energy in Electric lamps
      2. 18.2.2 Sankey Diagram for a Filament Lamp
      3. 18.2.3 Benefits
      4. 18.2.4 Key Issues
      5. 18.2.5 Opportunities of Energy Management
    3. 18.3 Fundamental Principles of Energy Management
      1. 18.3.1 Review of Past Pattern of Energy Use
      2. 18.3.2 Review of Current Pattern of Energy Use
      3. 18.3.3 Improvement in Housekeeping and Maintenance
      4. 18.3.4 Analysis of Energy Use
      5. 18.3.5 Economic Calculation
      6. 18.3.6 Material Substitution
      7. 18.3.7 Material Economy
      8. 18.3.8 Material Quality
      9. 18.3.9 Use More Efficient Equipment and Appliances
      10. 18.3.10 Employing Special Techniques to Reduce Losses
      11. 18.3.11 Use More Efficient Processes
      12. 18.3.12 Energy Containment
      13. 18.3.13 Aggregation of Energy Uses
      14. 18.3.14 Fuels and Energy Substitutions
      15. 18.3.15 Cascade Energy Use
      16. 18.3.16 Development of Simple and Highly Efficient Energy Conversion Principle
      17. 18.3.17 Development of Energy Storage System
    4. 18.4 Strategy for Energy Management
      1. 18.4.1 Decision to Undertake Program
      2. 18.4.2 Commitment by Management
      3. 18.4.3 Statement of Objectives
      4. 18.4.4 Database and Information Collection
      5. 18.4.5 Energy Audit
      6. 18.4.6 Computer Analysis and Simulation
      7. 18.4.7 Energy Efficiency Analysis
      8. 18.4.8 Energy Economics
      9. 18.4.9 People’s Involvement
      10. 18.4.10 Implementation
      11. 18.4.11 Verification
    5. 18.5 Energy Savings Tips
    6. 18.6 Constraints and Considerations for Implementing Energy Conservation and Management Program
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
  24. Chapter 19: Energy Conservation and Management in Different Energy Activity Sector
    1. 19.1 General
    2. 19.2 Energy Measurement Systems in Industry
    3. 19.3 Energy Management with Electric Power Supply Systems
      1. 19.3.1 Reduction of Peak Demand or Maximum Demand
    4. 19.4 Energy Management Opportunities with Lighting Systems
      1. 19.4.1 Efficacy of Light Lamps
      2. 19.4.2 Factors Affecting Selection of Light Sources (Lamps)
      3. 19.4.3 Energy Management Opportunities in Lighting Systems
      4. 19.4.4 Energy Saving Tips with Light Sources
    5. 19.5 Energy Management Opportunities with Electric Motors
      1. 19.5.1 Energy Management Opportunities with Ceiling Fan Regulators
    6. 19.6 Energy Management Opportunities with Household Electric Appliance
      1. 19.6.1 Energy Saving Tips with Household Appliances
    7. 19.7 Energy Management Opportunity with HVAC Systems
      1. 19.7.1 HVAC Systems
      2. 19.7.2 General Principles of Energy Management in HVAC Systems
    8. 19.8 Energy Saving Tips for Other Industrial Processes
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
  25. Appendix A: Multiple Choice Questions Chapter Wise
  26. Appendix B: Multiple Choice Objective Questions on Energy Systems
  27. Appendix C: Terms and Definition
  28. Bibliography