In this chapter, we will discuss the following important topics.

  • Edward Said
  • Pierre Bourdieu
  • Michel Foucault
  • Jurgen Habermas
  • Anthony Giddens
  • Manuel Castells


Poststructuralism, postmodernism, and postcolonial criticism are some of the ‘terms’ that go into the making of contemporary theory. Postmodernism is an intellectual discourse that is critical of modernism’s ‘grand narrative’, it is a rejection of epistemological certainty or stability of meaning, and its emphasis on ideology as a means of maintaining political power. It rejects the claims of objectivity in social science, drawing attention to the conditional ...

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