In this chapter, we will discuss the following important topics.

  • Marriage, family, and kinship
  • Economy
  • Polity
  • Religion
  • Education
  • Customs and law
  • Social stratification
  • Caste and class
  • Gender
  • Sexuality and disability
  • Race, tribe and ethnicity
  • Social change and processes
  • Modernisation and development
  • Social transformation and globalisation
  • Social mobility


A social institution is an interrelated system of social roles and social norms, organized around the satisfaction of an important social need or social function. Social Institutions are organized patterns of beliefs and behaviour that are centered on basic social ...

Get NTA UGC/NET/SET/JRF Sociology Paper 2 - 2024, 2nd Edition, Includes 2023 Solved Papers now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience books, live events, courses curated by job role, and more from O’Reilly and nearly 200 top publishers.