Introduction

There are a number of modeling methods that are suitable for solving problems in electromagnetism and analyzing the behavior of certain media. In order to apply these methods the type of problem must be specified and the boundary conditions must be clearly determined and defined. Numerical or analytical solutions are then carried out.

Analytical solutions, which are already well established, were the first to be applied. They enabled an efficient resolution of all problems relating to the majority of electromagnetic wave guiding systems. However, these analytical methods remain limited, since, in these cases, it is only possible to analyze structures with simple geometries and which, in the majority of cases, have a certain degree of symmetry.

For more realistic modeling of geometries and more complex materials (indeed, complexity leaves little room for any analytical resolution), we have numerical methods, which have become an important ement in the analysis of the behavior of various industrial products. They have progressed in parallel with technology and enable electronic systems developers to have at their disposal all of the necessary characteristics and data, which were difficult to obtain through testing, in order to ensure the reliability of device operation without any accompanying performance degradation.

In the specific case of electromagnetism, there are various differing numerical techniques, whose effectiveness depends on the problem and on the desired ...

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