This appendix is a brief disussion of the topic, and is intended to be sufficient for the times in the book that a proof uses mathematical induction.
Suppose you are given a statement, S, that depends on a variable n; for instance,
Let n0 be the first value of n for which S applies, and prove the statement true. This is called the basis step. For our example, n0 = 1. Now, assume S is true for any n ≥ n0 and prove that this implies S is true for n + 1. This is called the inductive step.
• S is true for n0, so S is true for n1 = n0 + 1.
• S is true for n1, so S is true for n2 = ...