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Offshore Wind Farms

Book Description

Offshore Wind Farms: Technologies, Design and Operation provides the latest information on offshore wind energy, one of Europe’s most promising and quickly maturing industries, and a potentially huge untapped renewable energy source which could contribute significantly towards EU 20-20-20 renewable energy generation targets.

It has been estimated that by 2030 Europe could have 150GW of offshore wind energy capacity, meeting 14% of our power demand. Offshore Wind Farms: Technologies, Design and Operation provides a comprehensive overview of the emerging technologies, design, and operation of offshore wind farms.

Part One introduces offshore wind energy as well as offshore wind turbine siting with expert analysis of economics, wind resources, and remote sensing technologies. The second section provides an overview of offshore wind turbine materials and design, while part three outlines the integration of wind farms into power grids with insights to cabling and energy storage. The final section of the book details the installation and operation of offshore wind farms with chapters on condition monitoring and health and safety, amongst others.

  • Provides an in-depth, multi-contributor, comprehensive overview of offshore technologies, including design, monitoring, and operation
  • Edited by respected and leading experts in the field, with experience in both academia and industry
  • Covers a highly relevant and important topic given the great potential of offshore wind power in contributing significantly to EU 20-20-20 renewable energy targets

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Related titles
  5. Copyright
  6. List of contributors
  7. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Part One. Introduction to offshore wind energy and offshore wind farm siting
    1. 1. Introduction to offshore wind energy
      1. 1.1. Wind energy
      2. 1.2. Offshore wind farm
      3. 1.3. Energy cost
      4. 1.4. Wind turbines
      5. 1.5. Disputable issues
    2. 2. Economics of building and operating offshore wind farms
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Investment costs
      3. 2.3. Operating costs
      4. 2.4. Key economic drivers for offshore wind energy
      5. 2.5. Levelised cost of energy
      6. 2.6. Future cost of offshore wind
      7. 2.7. Conclusions
    3. 3. Wind resources for offshore wind farms: Characteristics and assessment
      1. 3.1. Key issues in assessing wind resources
      2. 3.2. The nature of the offshore wind environment
      3. 3.3. Essential data parameters
      4. 3.4. Observational approaches
      5. 3.5. Modeling approaches
      6. 3.6. Future trends
      7. Abbreviations
    4. 4. Remote sensing technologies for measuring offshore wind
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Conventional methods
      3. 4.3. Surface-based remote sensing
      4. 4.4. Space-borne RS
      5. 4.5. Case study – a near-coastal wind farm project
      6. 4.6. Future trends
      7. Sources of further information
      8. Abbreviations and Acronyms
  10. Part Two. Wind turbine components and design
    1. 5. Developments in materials for offshore wind turbine blades
      1. 5.1. Key requirements for blade materials
      2. 5.2. Role of testing materials and structures in the blade design process
      3. 5.3. Case study on material selection and blade design
      4. 5.4. Future trends
      5. Abbreviations and nomenclature
    2. 6. Design of offshore wind turbine blades
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Aerodynamics
      3. 6.3. Materials
      4. 6.4. Structural design
      5. 6.5. Manufacture
      6. Nomenclature
    3. 7. Wind turbine gearbox design with drivetrain dynamic analysis
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. WTGS gearbox design – concept stage
      3. 7.3. WTGS gearbox design – development stage
      4. 7.4. WTGS gearbox design – production stage
      5. 7.5. Drivetrain dynamic analysis
      6. 7.6. Conclusions
    4. 8. Design of generators for offshore wind turbines
      1. 8.1. Introduction: key issues in generator design
      2. 8.2. Electrical generators: types and principles of operation
      3. 8.3. Practical design and manufacture of electrical generators
      4. 8.4. Selection of generators for offshore wind turbines
      5. 8.5. Future trends in offshore wind turbine generators
      6. Sources of further information
    5. 9. Modelling of power electronic components for evaluation of efficiency, power density and power-to-mass ratio of offshore wind power converters
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Semiconductors and switch valves
      3. 9.3. Filter inductors
      4. 9.4. Filter capacitors
      5. 9.6. Evaluation example of a 1-MW 2L-VSC
      6. Nomenclature
    6. 10. Design of offshore wind turbine towers
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Function and types of towers
      3. 10.3. Standards of reference
      4. 10.4. Design spiral process and loads' analysis
      5. 10.5. Shell and flange sizing
      6. 10.6. Secondary steel, other structure details, and coatings
      7. 10.7. Optimization considerations
      8. 10.8. Final remarks
      9. Glossary
      10. List of symbols
      11. List of greek symbols
    7. 11. Design of floating offshore wind turbines
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Design of floating offshore wind turbines: main preliminary steps
      3. 11.3. Key issues in design of floating offshore wind turbines
      4. 11.4. Summary: case study
      5. 11.5. Future trends
      6. Nomenclature
      7. Sources of further information
  11. Part Three. Integration of wind farms into power grids
    1. 12. Offshore wind farm arrays
      1. 12.1. Fundamentals of offshore wind farm arrays
      2. 12.2. Design considerations
      3. 12.3. Main electrical components
      4. 12.4. Topologies
      5. 12.5. Converter interface arrangements and collector design
      6. 12.6. Wake farm arrangement – wake effects
      7. 12.7. Control objectives
      8. 12.8. Collector design procedure
      9. Abbreviations
    2. 13. Cabling to connect offshore wind turbines to onshore facilities
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Offshore wind farm cables
      3. 13.3. Offshore cable installation, protection and challenges
      4. 13.4. Dynamic cables for floating wind turbines and substations
      5. 13.5. Some mechanical aspects of subsea cables
      6. 13.6. Outlook for offshore wind farm cables
      7. Abbreviations
    3. 14. Integration of power from offshore wind turbines into onshore grids
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. Wind farm collection systems
      3. 14.3. Offshore wind power transmission systems
      4. 14.4. Voltage source converters
      5. 14.5. Development of future submarine power transmission schemes
      6. 14.6. Conclusions
    4. 15. Energy storage for offshore wind farms
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. The storage technologies
      3. 15.3. Indicative case studies: S-PSSs in Rhodes and Astypalaia
      4. 15.4. Conclusions
      5. Abbreviations
    5. 16. Hydropower flexibility and transmission expansion to support integration of offshore wind
      1. 16.1. Introduction
      2. 16.2. Technologies
      3. 16.3. Summary – case study
      4. 16.4. Scenarios
      5. 16.5. Results
      6. 16.6. Conclusions
  12. Part Four. Installation and operation of offshore wind farms
    1. 17. Assembly, transportation, installation and commissioning of offshore wind farms
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. Delivery of components
      3. 17.3. Onshore assembly
      4. 17.4. Offshore transport
      5. 17.5. Offshore installation
      6. 17.6. Tests and commissioning
      7. 17.7. Conclusions and future trends
    2. 18. Condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines
      1. 18.1. Reliability of offshore wind turbines
      2. 18.2. Challenges in offshore wind turbine operation and maintenance
      3. 18.3. Offshore wind turbine condition monitoring techniques
      4. 18.4. Offshore wind turbine condition monitoring systems
      5. 18.5. Signal processing techniques used for WT CM
      6. 18.6. Existing issues and future tendencies of WT CM
    3. 19. Health and safety of offshore wind farms
      1. 19.1. Limits of this chapter
      2. 19.2. Introduction
      3. 19.3. Legal framework
      4. 19.4. Safety management system
      5. 19.5. Plan, do, check, act
      6. 19.6. The offshore renewable energy industry
      7. 19.7. Plan
      8. 19.8. Do
      9. 19.9. Check
      10. 19.10. Act
      11. 19.11. For the future
      12. 19.12. Conclusion
      13. Abbreviations
    4. 20. Offshore wind turbine foundations – analysis and design
      1. 20.1. Foundation options for offshore wind-turbine structures
      2. 20.2. System of loading on offshore foundations
      3. 20.3. General aspects of OWT monopile foundation system
      4. 20.4. Offshore design codes and methods
      5. 20.5. Investigation of monopile–soil behaviour
      6. 20.6. Design of OWT foundation
      7. 20.7. Future outlook and research needs
      8. Nomenclature
      9. Abbreviations
  13. Index