The basic structure of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was reported by Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke at Eastman Kodak in 1987 . This was a groundbreaking study and was later referred to as the “first OLED paper.” Now, almost 25 years later, there is a large market place for OLED devices. After the first active-matrix-driven OLED (AMOLED) display was introduced by SK Display (a joint manufacturing venture by Eastman Kodak and Sanyo Electric), the first product using an AMOLED display was Kodak’s LS633 digital camera (see Fig. 1.1). This was followed by the widescale development of many other OLED-based products, including cellular phones, audioplayers (Fig. 1.2), portable multimedia players (Fig. 1.3), and portable global positioning satellite (GPS) devices, which now provide high-resolution displays in brilliant, multitone colors.
Larger-display products have also been introduced on the market, such as those ...