Nonideal Op Amp Characteristics

For purposes of analysis and design in the preceding chapters, we considered many of the op amp parameters to be ideal. For example, we generally assumed the input bias current to be 0, we frequently ignored output resistance, and we disregarded any effects caused by drift or offset voltage. This approach not only greatly simplifies the analysis and design techniques, but is a practical method for many situations. Nevertheless, more demanding applications require that we acknowledge the existence of certain nonideal op amp characteristics. This chapter will describe many of these additional considerations.


We will classify the nonideal characteristics of op amps into ...

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