Chapter 8

Designing Low-Voltage Op Amp Circuits

8.1 Introduction

Op amp application circuits are a means to an end – the end being a product that is sold. More and more products are being manufactured that operate off batteries. Consumers want smaller, lighter products that still have the functionality of previous generations of products, the cell phone being an excellent example. The four-pound brick-shaped cell phone with an antenna has been supplanted by ever smaller “smart” phones. Cell phones may not be the best example because op amps are integrated inside integrated circuits (ICs) that are highly integrated. Make no mistake, though, op amp gain and filter circuits still exist inside those ICs. At some point, a designer still had to design ...

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