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Op Amps for Everyone, 5th Edition

Book Description

Op Amps for Everyone, Fifth Edition, will help you design circuits that are reliable, have low power consumption, and can be implemented in as small a size as possible at the lowest possible cost. It bridges the gap between the theoretical and practical by giving pragmatic solutions using components that are available in the real world from distributors. The book does not just give a design with a transfer function; instead, it provides design tools based on transfer function, getting you to a working circuit so you can make the right decision on which op amp is best for the job at hand.

With this book you will learn: single op amp designs that get the most out of every amplifier; which specifications are of most importance to your design, enabling you to narrow down the list of amplifiers to those few that are most suitable; strategies for making simple tweaks to the design—changes that are often apparent once a prototype has been constructed; how to design for hostile environments—extreme temperatures, high levels of shock, vibration, and radiation—by knowing which circuit parameters are likely to degrade and how to counteract that degradation.

  • Features real world op amp selection guides
  • Teaches which op amp is best for the job
  • Includes design circuits with real world component values
  • Contains guidelines for developing the entire signal chain, from specification for the transducer to power supply and data converter
  • Includes new coverage of negative regulation techniques and op amp stability, negative regulation techniques, extended electronics theory and troubleshooting

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. List of Figures
  7. List of Tables
  8. Foreword
  9. Chapter 1. The Op Amp's Place in the World
    1. 1.1. The Problem
    2. 1.2. The Solution
    3. 1.3. The Birth of the Op Amp
  10. Chapter 2. Development of the Ideal Op Amp Equations
    1. 2.1. Introduction
    2. 2.2. Ideal Op Amp Assumptions
    3. 2.3. The Noninverting Op Amp
    4. 2.4. The Inverting Op Amp
    5. 2.5. The Adder
    6. 2.6. The Differential Amplifier
    7. 2.7. Complex Feedback Networks
    8. 2.8. Impedance Matching Amplifiers
    9. 2.9. Capacitors
    10. 2.10. Why an Ideal Op Amp Would Destroy the Known Universe
    11. 2.11. Summary
  11. Chapter 3. Single-Supply Op Amp Design Techniques
    1. 3.1. Single Supply Versus Dual Supply
  12. Chapter 4. DC-Coupled Single-Supply Op Amp Design Techniques
    1. 4.1. An Introduction to DC-Coupled, Single-Supply Circuits
    2. 4.2. Simple Application to Get You Started
    3. 4.3. Circuit Analysis
    4. 4.4. Simultaneous Equations
    5. 4.5. Summary
  13. Chapter 5. On Beyond Case 4
    1. 5.1. A Continuum of Applications
    2. 5.2. Noninverting Attenuator With Zero Offset
    3. 5.3. Noninverting Attenuation With Positive Offset
    4. 5.4. Noninverting Attenuation With Negative Offset
    5. 5.5. Inverting Attenuation With Zero Offset
    6. 5.6. Inverting Attenuation With Positive Offset
    7. 5.7. Inverting Attenuation With Negative Offset
    8. 5.8. Noninverting Buffer
    9. 5.9. Signal Chain Design
  14. Chapter 6. Feedback and Stability Theory
    1. 6.1. Introduction to Feedback Theory
    2. 6.2. Block Diagram Math and Manipulations
    3. 6.3. Feedback Equation and Stability
    4. 6.4. Bode Analysis of Feedback Circuits
    5. 6.5. Bode Analysis Applied to Op Amps
    6. 6.6. Loop Gain Plots Are the Key to Understanding Stability
    7. 6.7. The Second-Order Equation and Ringing/Overshoot Predictions
  15. Chapter 7. Development of the Nonideal Op Amp Equations
    1. 7.1. Introduction
    2. 7.2. Review of the Canonical Equations
    3. 7.3. Noninverting Op Amps
    4. 7.4. Inverting Op Amps
    5. 7.5. Differential Op Amps
    6. 7.6. Are You Smarter Than an Op Amp?
  16. Chapter 8. Voltage-Feedback Op Amp Compensation
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. Internal Compensation
    3. 8.3. External Compensation, Stability, and Performance
    4. 8.4. Dominant-Pole Compensation
    5. 8.5. Gain Compensation
    6. 8.6. Lead Compensation
    7. 8.7. Compensated Attenuator Applied to Op Amp
    8. 8.8. Lead-Lag Compensation
    9. 8.9. Comparison of Compensation Schemes
    10. 8.10. Conclusions
  17. Chapter 9. Current-Feedback Op Amps
    1. 9.1. Introduction
    2. 9.2. Current-Feedback Amplifier Model
    3. 9.3. Development of the Stability Equation
    4. 9.4. The Noninverting Current-Feedback Amplifier
    5. 9.5. The Inverting Current-Feedback Amplifier
    6. 9.6. Stability Analysis
    7. 9.7. Selection of the Feedback Resistor
    8. 9.8. Stability and Input Capacitance
    9. 9.9. Stability and Feedback Capacitance
    10. 9.10. Compensation of CF and CG
    11. 9.11. Summary
  18. Chapter 10. Voltage- and Current-Feedback Op Amp Comparison
    1. 10.1. Introduction
    2. 10.2. Precision
    3. 10.3. Bandwidth
    4. 10.4. Stability
    5. 10.5. Impedance
    6. 10.6. Equation Comparison
  19. Chapter 11. Fully Differential Op Amps
    1. 11.1. Introduction
    2. 11.2. What Does “Fully Differential” Mean?
    3. 11.3. How is the Second Output Used?
    4. 11.4. Differential Gain Stages
    5. 11.5. Single-Ended to Differential Conversion
    6. 11.6. A New Function
    7. 11.7. Conceptualizing the Vocm Input
    8. 11.8. Instrumentation
    9. 11.9. Filter Circuits
  20. Chapter 12. Different Types of Op Amps
    1. 12.1. Introduction
    2. 12.2. Uncompensated/Undercompensated Voltage-Feedback Op Amps
    3. 12.3. Instrumentation Amplifier
    4. 12.4. Difference Amplifier
    5. 12.5. Buffer Amplifiers
  21. Chapter 13. Troubleshooting—What to Do When Things Go Wrong
    1. 13.1. Introduction
    2. 13.2. Simple Things First—Check the Power!
    3. 13.3. Do Not Forget That Enable Pin
    4. 13.4. Check the DC Operating Point
    5. 13.5. The Gain Is Wrong
    6. 13.6. The Output Is Noisy
    7. 13.7. The Output Has an Offset
    8. 13.8. Conclusion
  22. Chapter 14. Interfacing a Transducer to an Analog to Digital Converter
    1. 14.1. Introduction
    2. 14.2. System Information
    3. 14.3. Power Supply Information
    4. 14.4. Input Signal Characteristics
    5. 14.5. Analog to Digital Converter Characteristics
    6. 14.6. Interface Characteristics
    7. 14.7. Architectural Decisions
    8. 14.8. Conclusions
  23. Chapter 15. Interfacing D/A Converters to Loads
    1. 15.1. Introduction
    2. 15.2. Load Characteristics
    3. 15.3. Understanding the D/A Converter and Its Specifications
    4. 15.4. D/A Converter Error Budget
    5. 15.5. D/A Converter Errors and Parameters
    6. 15.6. Compensating for DAC Capacitance
    7. 15.7. Increasing Op Amp Buffer Amplifier Current and Voltage
  24. Chapter 16. Active Filter Design Techniques
    1. 16.1. Introduction
    2. 16.2. Fundamentals of Low-Pass Filters
    3. 16.3. Low-Pass Filter Design
    4. 16.4. High-Pass Filter Design
    5. 16.5. Band-Pass Filter Design
    6. 16.6. Band-Rejection Filter Design
    7. 16.7. All-Pass Filter Design
    8. 16.8. Practical Design Hints
    9. 16.9. Filter Coefficient Tables
  25. Chapter 17. Fast, Simple Filter Design
    1. 17.1. Introduction
    2. 17.2. Fast, Practical Filter Design
    3. 17.3. Designing the Filter
    4. 17.4. Getting the Most Out of a Single Op Amp
    5. 17.5. Design Aids
    6. 17.6. Summary
  26. Chapter 18. High-Speed Filters
    1. 18.1. Introduction
    2. 18.2. High-Speed Low-Pass Filters
    3. 18.3. High-Speed High-Pass Filters
    4. 18.4. High-Speed Band-Pass Filters
    5. 18.5. High-Speed Notch Filters
    6. 18.6. 10kHz Notch Filter Results
    7. 18.7. Conclusions
  27. Chapter 19. Using Op Amps for RF Design
    1. 19.1. Introduction
    2. 19.2. Voltage Feedback or Current Feedback?
    3. 19.3. RF Amplifier Topology
    4. 19.4. Op Amp Parameters for RF Designers
    5. 19.5. Wireless Systems
    6. 19.6. High-Speed Analog Input Drive Circuits
    7. 19.7. Conclusions
  28. Chapter 20. Designing Low-Voltage Op Amp Circuits
    1. 20.1. Introduction
    2. 20.2. Critical Specifications
    3. 20.3. Summary
  29. Chapter 21. Extreme Applications
    1. 21.1. Introduction
    2. 21.2. Temperature
    3. 21.3. Packaging
    4. 21.4. When Failure Is Not an Option
    5. 21.5. When It Has to Work for a Really Long Time
    6. 21.6. Conclusions
  30. Chapter 22. Voltage Regulation
    1. 22.1. Introduction
    2. 22.2. Regulator Cases
    3. 22.3. Make or Buy?
    4. 22.4. Linear Regulators
    5. 22.5. Switching Power Supplies
    6. 22.6. A Companion Circuit
    7. 22.7. Another Companion Circuit
    8. 22.8. Design Aid
    9. 22.9. Conclusions
  31. Chapter 23. Negative Voltage Regulation
    1. 23.1. Introduction
    2. 23.2. Positive Regulators
    3. 23.3. Parasitic Winding on the Inductor
    4. 23.4. Parasitic Inductor
    5. 23.5. Referencing the Regulator to −VOUT Instead of Ground
    6. 23.6. Other Techniques
    7. 23.7. A Negative Load
    8. 23.8. Conclusion
  32. Chapter 24. Other Applications
    1. 24.1. Op Amp Oscillators
    2. 24.2. Hybrid Amplifiers and Power Boosters
  33. Chapter 25. Common Application Mistakes
    1. 25.1. Introduction
    2. 25.2. Op Amp Operated at Less Than Unity (or Specified) Gain
    3. 25.3. Op Amp Used as a Comparator
    4. 25.4. Improper Termination of Unused Sections
    5. 25.5. DC Gain
    6. 25.6. Current Source
    7. 25.7. Current-Feedback Amplifier: Shorted Feedback Resistor
    8. 25.8. Current-Feedback Amplifier: Capacitor in the Feedback Loop
    9. 25.9. Fully Differential Amplifier: Incorrect Single-Ended Termination
    10. 25.10. Fully Differential Amplifier: Incorrect DC Operating Point
    11. 25.11. Fully Differential Amplifier: Incorrect Common-Mode Range
    12. 25.12. The Number One Design Mistake!
  34. Appendix A. Review of Circuit Theory
  35. Appendix B. Understanding Op Amp Parameters
  36. Appendix C. Op Amp Noise Theory
  37. Appendix D. Circuit Board Layout Techniques
  38. Appendix E. Single-Supply Circuit Collection
  39. Index