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Optical Network Control: Architecture, Protocols, and Standards by Debanjan Saha, Bala Rajagopalan, Greg Bernstein

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2.1. Introduction

SONET and SDH define technologies for carrying multiple digital signals of different capacities in a flexible manner. Most of the deployed optical networks are based on SONET and SDH standards. Consequently, a basic understanding of SONET and SDH is a prerequisite for understanding the optical control plane issues discussed in later chapters.

The basis for signal transport under SONET and SDH is a technique called Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). Multiplexing in general refers to the process of combining individual signals for transmission. The term de-multiplexing is used to denote the process of separating individual signals from a multiplexed stream. While there are many techniques for doing these, TDM is commonly used in ...

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