Dispersion and Compensation in WDM

Linear characteristics include attenuation, chromatic dispersion (CD), and polarization mode dispersion (PMD), whereas nonlinear characteristics include cross-phase modulation (XPM), four-wave mixing (FWM), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Chapter 3 covers these characteristics. Note that nonlinear characteristics can also be mitigated by using nonzero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF). NZDSF fiber overcomes these nonlinear effects by moving the zero-dispersion wavelength outside the 1550-nm operating window. The practical effect of this is to have a small but finite amount of CD at 1550 nm, which minimizes nonlinear effects, such as FWM, SPM, and XPM, which are seen ...

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