This section begins by highlighting advances in optical path cross-connect systems that use planar-light-wave circuit switches. A photonic MPLS router that can handle up to 256 optical label switched paths (OLSPs) is developed as one result of R&D activities; mature optical path cross-connect (OPXC) technologies are adopted to create a practical OPXC system [3].

The economic doldrums known as the optical bubble collapse started around the world in mid-2001. Even in the face of this adversity, the growth rate of IP traffic exceeds Moore's law. This explosion in Internet traffic is strengthening the demand for large-capacity IP backbone networks [3].

This section also describes the photonic MPLS router, state-of-the-art research that can be used to create large-capacity IP-centric data traffic networks, and a practical OPXC system as an example of mature OPXC technologies. Advances in planar-light-wave circuit switch (PLC-SW) technologies toward the goal of the OPXC are also discussed [3].

14.2.1. Advances in OPXC Technologies

While tackling the R&D challenges, such as the photonic MPLS system, researchers steadily advanced the maturity of OPXC technologies. Furthermore, some of the technologies have been implemented in a practical system [3]. The Photonic MPLS Router

In this section, the concept of the photonic MPLS in 2000 as an extension of MPLS to the photonic layers is proposed [3]. A photonic MPLS router based on this concept has been developed ...

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