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Oracle Automatic Storage Management: Under-the-Hood & Practical Deployment Guide

Book Description

Build and manage a scalable storage infrastructure with Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Streamline data management and provisioning using Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) and the detailed information contained in this exclusive Oracle Press resource. Written by a team of database experts, Oracle Automatic Storage Management: Under-the-Hood & Practical Deployment Guide explains how to build and maintain a dynamic, highly available Oracle database storage environment. Inside, you'll learn how to configure storage for Oracle ASM, build disk groups, use data striping and mirroring, and optimize performance. You'll also learn how to ensure consistency across server and storage platforms, maximize data redundancy, and administer Oracle ASM from the command line.

  • Manage Oracle ASM Instances and configure Oracle RDBMS instances to leverage Oracle ASM

  • Define, discover, and manage disk storage under Oracle ASM

  • Create external, normal-redundancy, and high-redundancy disk groups

  • Add and remove Oracle ASM storage without affecting RDMS instance availability

  • Learn how Oracle ASM provides even I/O distribution

  • Work with Oracle ASM directories, files, templates, and aliases

  • Improve storage performance and integrity using the ASMLIB API

  • Simplify system administration with the Oracle ASM command line interface

  • Understand key internal Oracle ASM structures and algorithms

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Oracle Automatic Storage Management: Under-the-Hood & Practical Deployment Guide
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication Page
  5. About the Authors
  6. Contents
  10. 1 Storage Stack Overview
    1. Disk Drive Technology
      1. Disk Drive Performance
    2. Disk Interface
      2. SCSI (Parallel)
      3. SATA
      4. FC and FC-AL
      5. SAS
    3. Storage System Architectures
      1. DAS
      2. NAS
      3. SAN
    4. Channel, Networks, and Protocols
    5. SAN Components
      1. FC (Fabric) Switches
      2. HBA
      3. Storage Arrays
      4. RAID and RAID Controllers
    6. iSCSI
      1. Software-iSCSI Initiators
      2. TCP Offload Engine (TOE) NIC
      3. iSCSI HBA
    7. InfiniBand
    8. Oracle and I/O Characteristics
      1. Types of File to Access
      2. I/O Access Patterns
      3. I/O Request Calls
      4. Basic Variables That Affect I/O Performance
    9. Protecting the Storage Stack from Failures
    10. Summary
  11. 2 ASM Instances
    1. Starting ASM
    2. ASM Background Processes
    3. ASM SGA and Parameter Sizing
      1. ASM init.ora Parameters
      2. Best Practices for ASM init.ora Parameters
    4. ASM and Single Point of Failure
    5. ASM Installation
    6. Initializing an ASM Instance
    7. Upgrading ASM Software
      1. Upgrading the ASM Instance from 10.x to 11.x
      2. Patching ASM
    8. ASM and Security
      1. One ASM Instance and Multiple UNIX Userids
      2. ASM and Privileges
      3. ASM and orapwd
    9. ASM Management
    10. Summary
  12. 3 ASM Disks
    1. ASM Storage Provisioning
      1. ASM Storage Device Configuration
      2. ASM Disk Device Discovery
    2. Third-Party Volume Managers and ASM
    3. ASM and Storage Arrays
    4. Preparing ASM Disks on OS Platforms
      1. Configuring ASM Disks on Solaris
      2. Configuring ASM on AIX
      3. ASM and Windows
      4. asmtool
      5. asmtoolg
    5. ASM and Multipathing
    6. Summary
  13. 4 Diskgroups and Failure Groups
    1. Diskgroup Management
    2. Creating Diskgroups
    3. ASM Disk Names
    4. Diskgroup Numbers
    5. Disk Numbers
    6. ASM Redundancy and Failure Groups
      1. Creating ASM Redundancy Diskgroups
      2. Designing for ASM Redundancy Diskgroups
      3. Allocating ASM Extent Sets
      4. Disk Partnering
      5. Recovering Failure Groups
    7. ASM and Extended Clusters
    8. ASM Preferred Read
    9. Recovering from Transient and Permanent Disk Failures
      1. Recovering from Disk Failures in Oracle Database 10g
      2. Recovering from Disk Failures in Oracle Database 11g—Fast Disk Resync
      3. I/O Error-Failure Management and ASM
    10. Space Management Views for ASM Redundancy
    11. Diskgroups and Attributes
      1. ASM and Database Compatibility
    12. Summary
  14. 5 ASM Space Allocation and Rebalance
    1. ASM Space Allocation
      1. ASM Allocation Units
      2. ASM Extents
      3. ASM Striping
      4. Setting Larger AU Sizes for VLDBs
    2. ASM Rebalance
      1. Rebalance Operation
      2. Fast Rebalance
      3. Effects of Imbalanced Disks
      4. ASM and Storage Array Migration
      5. ASM and OS Migration
      6. Important Points on ASM Rebalance
    3. Summary
  15. 6 ASMLIB Concepts and Overview
    1. Benefits of ASMLIB
      1. Device Discovery
      2. I/O Processing
      3. Performance and Reliability
    2. Oracle's ASMLIB Implementation
      1. Oracle ASMLIB Installation
    3. Summary
  16. 7 ASM Files, Aliases, and Templates
    1. ASM Filenames
    2. ASM Directories
    3. ASM Aliases
      1. Templates
    4. Summary
  17. 8 ASM Command-Line
    1. Interactive and Noninteractive Modes
    2. Connected and Nonconnected Modes
    3. ASM Metadata Backup and Restore in ASMCMD
      1. Backup Mode
      2. Restore Mode
      3. Backup and Recovery Example
    4. Bad Block Remapping in ASMCMD
    5. ASMCMD Copy
    6. Summary
  18. 9 Managing Databases in ASM
    1. Database Interaction with ASM
    2. Diskgroups and Databases
    3. Interaction between ASM and Database
    4. ASM Implementations
      1. Using ASM on a Single Node
      2. Using ASM on Multiple Nodes
      3. Consolidating and Clustering Databases
      4. Clustering ASM
      5. Database init.ora Parameters to Support ASM
    5. Migration to ASM
      1. Converting Non-ASM Databases to ASM Using RMAN
      2. Converting Non-ASM Datafiles to ASM Using RMAN
      3. Moving Datafiles from One Diskgroup to Another
      4. Converting ASM Files Using DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER
      5. Transferring Non-ASM Datafiles to ASM Using FTP
      6. Accessing an ASM Virtual Folder via FTP
      7. Using EM to Simplify ASM Migration
    6. ASM Performance Monitoring Using EM
    7. ASM–Database Multiversion Support
    8. Transportable Tablespaces and ASM
      1. Performing the Preliminary Steps to Set Up TTS
      2. Converting the Database
    9. Summary
  19. 10 ASM Persistent Data Structures
    1. Physical Metadata
      1. Disk Header
      2. Allocation Table (AT)
      3. Free Space Table (FST)
      4. Partnership Status Table (PST)
    2. Virtual Metadata
      1. File Directory
      2. Disk Directory
      3. Active Change Directory (ACD)
      4. Continuing Operations Directory (COD)
      5. Template Directory
      6. Alias Directory
      7. Attributes Directory
      8. Staleness Directory
      9. Staleness Registry (SR)
    3. Summary
  20. 11 ASM Operations
    1. ASM Instance Discovery
    2. RDBMS Operations on ASM Files
      1. File Create
      2. File Open
      3. File I/O
      4. File Close
      5. File Delete
    3. ASM File Allocation
      1. External Redundancy Diskgroups
      2. Variable-Sized Extents
      3. ASM Striping
    4. ASM Redundancy
      1. Failure Groups
      2. Disk Partners
      3. Allocation with ASM Redundancy
      4. I/O to ASM Mirrored Files
    5. Rebalance
    6. Resync
    7. Relocation
    8. ASM Instance Recovery and Crash Recovery
    9. Disk Discovery
      1. Mount Diskgroup
      2. Create Diskgroup
      3. Add Disk
      4. Online Disk
      5. Select from V$ASM_DISK and V$ASM_DISKGROUP
    10. Summary
  21. 12 From Discussion to Deployment
    1. Why System Administrators Freak Out over ASM
    2. Why Vendors of Storage and Volume Managers Dislike ASM
    3. ASM—What's in It for the Business
      1. Improves Storage Utilization
      2. Lowers Storage Administration Cost
      3. Improves Application Availability
      4. Lowers Deployment Cost
    4. What DBAs Need to Know before Talking to System Administrators about ASM
    5. Peer Politics
    6. Summary
  22. A ASM and Storage Array Configurations
    1. Best Practices for EMC Clariion and ASM
    2. Best Practices for HP StorageWorks EVA 8000 and ASM
    3. Configuring ASM with EMC DMX-3
    4. Configuring the Initial ASM Diskgroup with CVM/VxVM
    5. ASM and NetApp NAS
      1. General Recommendations
  23. B Troubleshooting ASM
    1. ASM Startup Issues
      1. Diskgroup Cannot be Mounted
      2. Disk Space–Related Issues
    2. A Walkthrough of an ASM Alert Log
  24. C Scripts and Tips
    1. Leveraging Unix Files as ASM
    2. Automatically Starting Up and Shutting Down ASM Instances in Non-RAC Environments
    3. Migrating Individual Non-ASM Datafiles to ASM
    4. Creating DataPump Filesets and ASM
    5. Creating Extra Controlfiles in ASM
    6. Using ASM SQL Scripts
    7. Reporting Disk Imbalances
      1. The Script
      2. The Sample Script Output
    8. Reporting ASM iostat Information—asmiostat.sh
      1. The Sample Script
      2. The Sample Script Output
  25. D Typical ASM Diskgroup Commands
    1. Mount a Diskgroup
    2. Dismount a Diskgroup
    3. Add ASM Disks to the Diskgroup
    4. Drop ASM Disks from the Diskgroup
    5. Check Diskgroup Consistency
    6. Modify the Rebalance Power Level
    7. Drop a Diskgroup
  26. E References
  27. Index