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Oracle Database 12c Release 2 Oracle Real Application Clusters Handbook: Concepts, Administration, Tuning & Troubleshooting

Book Description

This comprehensive guide has been fully updated to cover the latest features and tools of Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c

Through clear instruction and detailed examples, Oracle Database 12c Real Application Clusters Handbook: Concepts, Administration, Tuning & Troubleshooting teaches how to build, configure, and maintain a dynamic enterprise computing infrastructure. This thoroughly revised edition covers best uses for the latest tools and features—all from the practical standpoint of a working DBA.

You will discover how to prepare hardware, configure the software, optimize data integrity, and integrate seamless failover protection. Brand-new flex and large cluster technologies are explained in full detail, and readers will get complete solutions for securing data and continuing business operations in the event of hardware failure.

  • Presents all the new information needed to effectively use Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c -considered the most radical overhaul ever
  • Offers detailed coverage of troubleshooting, performance tuning, and application development

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Contents
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
  9. PART I High Availability Architecture and Clusters
    1. 1 Introduction to High Availability and Scalability
      1. High Availability
        1. HA Terminology
        2. Planned and Unplanned Outages
        3. An End-to-End Perspective
        4. Cost of Downtime
        5. Building Redundant Components
        6. Common Solutions for HA
        7. Cluster, Cold Failover, and Hot Failover
        8. HA Option Pros and Cons
      2. Scalability
        1. The Oracle RAC Solution
      3. Agility
        1. The Oracle Database 12c RAC Solution
      4. Summary
    2. 2 Oracle Database Clustering Basics and Its Evolution
      1. Cloud Computing with Clusters
      2. Shared Storage in Clustering
        1. Types of Clustering Architectures
      3. Hadoop Clusters
        1. Architecture of Hadoop
      4. Historical Background of Oracle RAC
        1. Oracle Parallel Storage Evaluation
        2. Oracle Parallel Server Architecture
      5. Components of an OPS Database
        1. Cluster Group Services (CGS)
        2. Distributed Lock Manager (DLM)
        3. Locking Concepts in Oracle Parallel Server
        4. Cache Fusion Stage 1, CR Server
      6. The Oracle RAC Solution
        1. Availability
        2. Scalability
        3. Affordability
      7. Summary
    3. 3 Oracle RAC Architecture
      1. Introduction to Oracle Real Application Clusters
        1. Single-Instance Environment vs. Oracle RAC Environment
        2. Oracle Flex Clusters
        3. Oracle Extended Clusters
        4. Oracle Multitenant and Oracle RAC
      2. Administrator- vs. Policy-Managed Databases
        1. Dynamic Services
        2. Oracle Database Quality of Service Management
      3. Oracle RAC Components
        1. Shared Disk System
        2. Oracle Clusterware
        3. The Oracle High Availability Services Technology Stack
      4. Oracle RAC Networking Concepts and Components
        1. Key Networking Concepts
        2. The Networking Stack Components
      5. Oracle Kernel Components
        1. Global Cache and Global Enqueue Services
        2. Global Resource Directory
        3. Oracle RAC Background Processes
      6. Summary
  10. PART II Installation, Configuration, and Storage
    1. 4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
      1. An Overview of the Grid Infrastructure Installation Process
      2. Preinstallation Tasks
        1. Understanding the Installer, CVU, and ORAchk
        2. Configuring the Operating System
        3. Configuring the Network
        4. Configuring NTP
        5. Setting Up the Groups and Users
        6. Creating the Required Linux Directories
        7. Configuring Shared Storage
        8. Secure Shell and User Limits Configuration
        9. Setting User Limits
        10. Configuring the Kernel Parameters
        11. Running the Cluster Verification Utility
        12. Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with OUI
      3. Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure
        1. Choosing the Installation Options and Naming Your Cluster
        2. Specifying the Cluster Nodes and Verifying SSH Connectivity
        3. Specifying the Network Interfaces
        4. Selecting the Storage Options
        5. Specifying Management Options and Privileged OS System Groups
        6. Performing the Prerequisite Checks
        7. Running the root Scripts
        8. The Product Installation
        9. Verifying the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
      4. Summary
    2. 5 Installing Oracle RAC and Creating an Oracle RAC Database
      1. Installing Oracle Real Application Clusters
      2. Creating the Oracle RAC Database
      3. Summary
    3. 6 Automatic Storage Management
      1. Standard Oracle ASM and Oracle Flex ASM
      2. Introduction to Automatic Storage Management
        1. Physical Limits of ASM
        2. ASM in Operation
        3. ASM Building Blocks
      3. Managing Oracle ASM Files and Directories
        1. ASM Filenames
        2. Creating and Referencing ASM Files
        3. Managing Disk Group Directories
      4. ASM Administration and Management
        1. Managing an ASM Instance
        2. ASM Initialization Parameters
      5. Managing ASM Disk Groups
        1. Creating a Disk Group
        2. Adding Disks to a Disk Group
        3. Dropping, Undropping, Resizing, and Renaming Disks in a Disk Group
      6. Administering ACFS
        1. Setting Up ACFS
        2. Creating an ACFS Snapshot
      7. ASM Disk Rebalancing
        1. Manually Rebalancing a Disk Group
        2. Rebalancing Phase Options
        3. Monitoring the Performance of Balancing Operations
        4. Tuning Disk Rebalancing Operations
      8. Backup and Recovery in ASM
      9. ASM Flex Clusters
        1. Configuration of Oracle ASM in Flex ASM
        2. Setting Up Flex ASM
        3. Managing ASM Flex Disk Groups
        4. Understanding ASM File Groups and ASM Quota Groups
        5. Oracle Extended Disk Groups
      10. ASM Tools
        1. ASMCA: The ASM Configuration Assistant
        2. ASMCMD: The ASM Command-Line Utility
        3. ASM FTP Utility
      11. ASMLib
        1. Installing ASMLib
        2. Configuring ASMLib
        3. Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD)
      12. Summary
  11. PART III Oracle RAC Administration and Management
    1. 7 Oracle RAC Basic Administration
      1. Oracle RAC Initialization Parameters
        1. Parameters That Are Unique to an Instance
        2. Identical Parameters
        3. Instance Parameters That “Should” Be the Same
        4. Managing the Parameter File
        5. Backing Up the Server Parameter File
        6. Search Order for the Parameter Files in an Oracle RAC Database
      2. Starting and Stopping Instances
        1. Using SRVCTL to Start/Stop Databases and Instance(s)
        2. Administering the Oracle ASM Instances
        3. Using CRSCTL to Stop Databases and Instances
        4. Using SQL*Plus to Start/Stop Instances
      3. Common SRVCTL Management Commands
        1. Database-Related SRVCTL Commands
        2. Instance-Related SRVCTL Commands
        3. Listener-Related SRVCTL Commands
        4. Setting, Unsetting, and Displaying the Environment Variables
        5. Changing the Configuration of Databases and Instances
        6. Relocating Services
        7. Removing the Configuration Information for Specific Targets
        8. Predicting the Impact of Failures
      4. Managing Pluggable Databases in a RAC Environment
      5. Administering Undo in an Oracle RAC Database
      6. Administering a Temporary Tablespace
        1. Managing Traditional (Global) Tablespaces
        2. Managing Local Temporary Tablespaces
        3. Hierarchy of Temporary Tablespaces
      7. Administering Online Redo Logs
        1. Enabling Archive Logs in the Oracle RAC Environment
      8. Enabling the Flashback Area
      9. Managing Database Configuration with SRVCTL
      10. Killing Sessions on Specific Instances of a Cluster
      11. Managing Database Objects
        1. Managing Sequences
        2. Managing Tables
        3. Managing Indexes
        4. Scope of SQL Commands
        5. Database Connections
      12. Administering Server Pools
        1. Configuring Server Pools
        2. Consolidation of Databases
        3. Creating a Server Pool
        4. Converting an Administrator-Managed Database to a Policy-Managed Database
      13. Summary
    2. 8 Managing Oracle Clusterware
      1. Configuring and Administering Oracle Clusterware
        1. Benefits of Server Pools
        2. Server Pools and Policy-Based Management
        3. Server Pools and Categorization
        4. How Server Pools Work
        5. Types of Server Pools
        6. Creating Server Pools
        7. Evaluating the Addition of a Server Pool
        8. Deleting a Server Pool
      2. Role-Separated Management
        1. Managing Cluster Administrators
        2. Configuring Role Separation
        3. Using the crsctl setperm Command
      3. Weight-Based Server Node Eviction
      4. Administering SCAN
        1. Starting and Stopping SCAN
        2. Displaying the SCAN Status
        3. Administering the Grid Naming Service (GNS)
      5. Using the CLUVFY Utility for Managing Oracle RAC
      6. Clusterware Startup
        1. The Clusterware Startup Process
        2. Clusterware Starting Sequence
        3. Oracle Clusterware Auto-Startup
        4. Oracle Clusterware Manual Startup
      7. Using CRSCTL to Manage the Clusterware
        1. Starting and Stopping CRS
        2. Clusterized (Cluster-Aware) CRSCTL Commands
        3. Verifying the Status of CRS
        4. Disabling and Enabling CRS
        5. The CRSCTL EVAL Commands
      8. Using Other Utilities to Manage Oracle Clusterware
        1. Using the olsnodes Command
        2. The GPnP Tool
        3. The Cluster Health Monitor
        4. The OCLUMON Tool
        5. Oracle Interface Configuration: oifcfg
        6. Cluster Configuration Utility: clscfg
        7. The Cluster Name Check Utility: cemutlo
        8. Oracle Trace File Analyzer
      9. Administering the OCR
        1. Checking OCR Integrity
        2. Dumping OCR Information
        3. Managing the OCR with the OCRCONFIG Utility
        4. Maintaining a Mirror OCR
        5. Migrating the OCR to ASM
      10. Administering the Oracle Local Registry
      11. Administering the Voting Disks
        1. Using ASM Storage for Voting Files
        2. Backing Up Voting Disks
        3. Restoring Voting Disks
        4. Adding and Deleting Voting Disks
        5. Migrating Voting Disks
      12. Summary
    3. 9 Oracle RAC Backup and Recovery
      1. Introduction to Backups
        1. Oracle Backup Options
      2. Oracle Backup Basics
        1. Performing Backups in Oracle
      3. Instance Recovery in Oracle RAC
        1. Redo Threads and Streams
        2. Redo Records and Change Vectors
        3. Checkpoints
      4. Crash Recovery
        1. Steps in Crash Recovery (Single Instance)
        2. Crash Recovery in Oracle RAC
      5. Instance Recovery
      6. Crash Recovery and Media Recovery
        1. Bounded Recovery
        2. Block-Written Record (BWR)
        3. Past Image (PI)
        4. Two-Pass Recovery
        5. Cache Fusion Recovery
      7. Dynamic Reconfiguration and Affinity Remastering
        1. Fast Reconfiguration in Oracle RAC
        2. Internals of Cache Fusion Recovery
      8. Backup and Recovery of the Voting Disk and OCR
        1. Backup and Recovery of Voting Disks
        2. Backup and Recovery of OCR
        3. Validating OCR Backups
      9. Summary
    4. 10 Oracle RAC Performance Management
      1. Oracle RAC Design Considerations
        1. Oracle Design Best Practices
        2. Oracle RAC–Specific Design Best Practices
      2. Partitioning the Workload
      3. Scalability and Performance
      4. Choosing the Block Size for an Oracle RAC Database
      5. Introduction to the V$ and GV$ Views
        1. Parallel Query Slaves
        2. V$ Views Containing Cache Fusion Statistics
      6. Oracle RAC Wait Events
        1. Understanding Cluster Waits
      7. Global Cache Statistics
        1. Global Cache Statistics Summary
      8. Global Cache Service Times
        1. Global Cache Service Times Summary
      9. Enqueue Tuning in Oracle RAC
      10. Oracle AWR Report
        1. Interpreting the AWR Report
        2. ADDM
        3. ASH Reports
      11. Tuning the Cluster Interconnect
        1. Verifying That Private Interconnect Is Used
        2. Interconnect Latencies
        3. Verifying That Network Interconnect Is Not Saturated
      12. Summary
  12. PART IV Advanced Oracle RAC Concepts
    1. 11 Global Resource Directory
      1. Resources and Enqueues
        1. Grants and Conversions
        2. Locks and Enqueues
      2. Cache Coherency
      3. Global Enqueue Services
        1. Latches and Enqueues
        2. Global Locks Database and Structure
        3. Messaging in Oracle RAC
      4. Global Cache Services
        1. Lock Modes and Lock Roles
        2. Consistent Read Processing
        3. GCS Resource Mastering
        4. Read-Mostly Locking
      5. Summary
    2. 12 A Closer Look at Cache Fusion
      1. Key Components in Cache Fusion
        1. Ping
        2. Deferred Ping
        3. Past Image (PI) Blocks
        4. Lock Mastering
        5. Types of Contention
      2. Cache Fusion I, or Consistent Read Server
      3. Cache Fusion II, or Write/Write Cache Fusion
        1. Cache Fusion in Operation
        2. Cache Fusion Walkthrough
        3. Resource Mastering and Remastering
      4. Background Processes and Cache Fusion
        1. LMON: Lock Monitor Process
        2. LMS: Lock Manager Server
        3. LMD: Lock Manager Daemon Process (LMDn)
        4. LCKn: Lock Process (LCK0)
        5. DIAG: Diagnostic Daemon (DIAG)
      5. Summary
    3. 13 Workload Management, Connection Management, and Application Continuity
      1. Understanding Dynamic Database Services
        1. Service Characteristics
        2. Services and Policy-Managed Databases
        3. Resource Management and Services
        4. Using Services with Oracle Scheduler
        5. Administering Services
        6. Using Views to Get Service Information
        7. Distributed Transaction Processing
        8. AQ_HA_Notifications
      2. Workload Distribution and Load Balancing
        1. Hardware and Software Load Balancing
        2. Client-Side Load Balancing
        3. Server-Side Load Balancing
      3. Transparent Application Failover
        1. TAF Considerations
        2. Workload Balancing
        3. Measuring Workloads by Service
        4. Using Service-Level Thresholds
      4. Oracle RAC High Availability Features
        1. High Availability, Notifications, and FAN
        2. Event-Based Notification
        3. Application Failure Issues
      5. Using Transaction Guard for Efficient Client Failover
        1. Application Continuity for Masking Database Outages
      6. Summary
    4. 14 Oracle RAC Troubleshooting
      1. Installation Log Files
      2. Log Directory Structure in the Oracle RDBMS
      3. Log Directory Structure in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
      4. Troubleshooting a Failed Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
      5. Inside the Database Alert Log
      6. RAC ON and OFF
      7. Database Performance Issues
        1. Hung Database
        2. Hanganalyze Utility
      8. Debugging Node Eviction Issues
        1. Cluster Health Monitor
        2. Instance Membership Recovery
      9. Advanced Debugging for Oracle Clusterware Modules
      10. Debugging Various Utilities in Oracle RAC
      11. Using ORAchk to Troubleshoot RAC
      12. Summary
  13. PART V Deploying Oracle RAC
    1. 15 Extending Oracle RAC for Maximum Availability
      1. Benefits of Extended RAC Clusters
        1. Full Utilization of Resources
        2. Extremely Rapid Recovery
      2. Design Considerations
        1. Speed of Light
        2. Network Connectivity
        3. Cache Fusion Performance
        4. Data Storage
      3. Common Techniques for Data Mirroring
        1. Array-Based Mirroring
        2. Host-Based Mirroring
        3. ASM Preferred Read
        4. Challenges in Extended Clusters
      4. Extended Oracle RAC Limitations
      5. Extended Oracle RAC vs. Oracle Data Guard
      6. Summary
    2. 16 Developing Applications for Oracle RAC
      1. Application Partitioning
        1. Best Practice: Application Partitioning Schemes
      2. Data Partitioning
        1. Best Practice: Guidance Systems
      3. Buffer Busy Waits/Block Contention
      4. Index Partitioning
        1. Buffer Busy Waits: Index Branch/Leaf Blocks Contention
        2. Sorted Hash Clusters
      5. Working with Sequences
        1. CACHE and NOORDER
        2. CACHE and ORDER
        3. NOCACHE and ORDER
        4. Best Practice: Use Different Sequences for Each Instance
      6. Connection Management
      7. Full Table Scans
        1. Identifying Full Table Scans
        2. Interconnect Protocol
        3. Ethernet Frame Size
      8. Library Cache Effect in the Parsing
      9. Commit Frequency
      10. Summary
  14. PART VI Appendixes
    1. A Oracle RAC Reference
      1. Global Cache Services and Cache Fusion Diagnostics
        1. V$CACHE
        2. V$CACHE_TRANSFER
        3. V$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER
        4. V$CR_BLOCK_SERVER
        5. V$CURRENT_BLOCK_SERVER
        6. V$GC_ELEMENT
      2. Global Enqueue Services Diagnostics
        1. V$LOCK
        2. V$GES_BLOCKING_ENQUEUE
        3. V$ENQUEUE_STATISTICS
        4. V$LOCKED_OBJECT
        5. V$GES_STATISTICS
        6. V$GES_ENQUEUE
        7. V$GES_CONVERT_LOCAL
        8. V$GES_CONVERT_REMOTE
        9. V$GES_RESOURCE
      3. Dynamic Resource Remastering Diagnostics
        1. V$HVMASTER_INFO
        2. V$GCSHVMASTER_INFO
        3. V$GCSPFMASTER_INFO
      4. Cluster Interconnect Diagnostics
        1. V$CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS
        2. V$CONFIGURED_INTERCONNECTS
    2. B Adding and Removing Cluster Nodes
    3. Adding a Node
      1. Performing Pre-Installation Checks
      2. Executing the addNode.sh Script
    4. Installing the Oracle Database Software
      1. Creating a Database Instance
    5. Removing a Node
      1. Deleting the Instance on the Node to Be Deleted
      2. Removing the Node from the Database
      3. Removing the RAC4 Node from the Clusterware
  15. Index