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Oracle in a Nutshell

Book Description

Introduced a quarter-century ago, the Oracle database remains the leading enterprise relational database management system (RDBMS) in the world. Oracle is a complex system, offering a myriad of products, languages, and tools. Frequent updates, releases, and editions complicate the ability of Oracle users to keep up with the huge amounts of frequently changing information about the database and its capabilities.The goal of Oracle in a Nutshell is to pull together the most essential information on Oracle architecture, syntax, and user interfaces. The content and format of this book, an admirable addition to O'Reilly's respected In-a-Nutshell line, combine to boil down vital Oracle commands, language constructs, parameters, and file formats in a succinct and highly accessible desktop reference.Oracle in a Nutshell covers the information that database administrators PL/SQL and Java developers, and system, network, and security administrators need as they manage Oracle databases and write code for these databases. It includes:

  • Oracle Foundations--Overview of the Oracle architecture (memory structures and fundamental concepts), Oracle's various editions and packaging options, summary of the initialization file parameters and data dictionary views, and fundamentals of Oracle's concurrency scheme, security mechanisms (privileges, profiles, roles), and networking files (TNSNAMES.ORA, SQLNET.ORA, LISTENER.ORA, DAP.ORA, NAMES.ORA, CMAN.ORA) and options.
  • Oracle Languages--Syntax summary for SQL language statements, SQL function calls PL/SQL language statements and characteristics, PL/SQL built-in package headers, and Java (JDBC and SQLJ) interfaces to the Oracle database.
  • Oracle Tools--Commands provided with SQLPlus, SQLLoader, Import and Export, Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) and other backup/recovery methods, Oracle Enterprise Manager, and various performance tuning tools (Explain Plan, TKPROF, AUTOTRACE, UTLBSTAT, UTLESTAT, Statspack).
  • Appendixes--Summary of Oracle datatypes, operators, expressions, conditions, numeric and date formats, and resources for additional reading.

Table of Contents

  1. Oracle in a Nutshell
  2. Dedication
  3. Preface
    1. Which Platform and Version?
    2. Structure of This Book
    3. Conventions Used in This Book
    4. Comments and Questions
    5. Acknowledgments
      1. From Rick
      2. From Dave
  4. I. Foundations
    1. 1. Architecture and Packaging
      1. Oracle Instances and Databases
      2. The Components of a Database
        1. Tablespaces
        2. Physical Files in an Oracle Database
        3. Control Files
        4. Datafiles
          1. Datafile structure
          2. Extents and segments
        5. Redo Log Files
          1. Multiplexing redo log files
          2. How Oracle uses the redo logs
          3. Archived redo logs
      3. The Components of an Instance
        1. Memory Structures for an Instance
          1. Database buffer cache
          2. Shared pool
          3. Redo log buffer
          4. Large pool
        2. Background Processes for an Instance
      4. Oracle Versions
      5. Oracle Packaging
        1. Editions
        2. Options
    2. 2. Configuration
      1. Parameter Files and Types
        1. INIT.ORA: The Initialization File
        2. SPFILE: The Server Parameter File
        3. Dynamically Modifiable Parameters
      2. Initialization Parameters
        1. Auditing
          1. AUDIT_FILE_DEST
          2. AUDIT_TRAIL
          3. TRANSACTION_AUDITING
        2. Backup and Recovery
          1. BACKUP_DISK_IO_SLAVES
          2. BACKUP_TAPE_IO_SLAVES
          3. FAST_START_IO_TARGET
          4. FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
          5. FAST_START_PARALLEL_ROLLBACK
          6. FREEZE_DB_FOR_FAST_INSTANCE_RECOVERY
          7. RECOVERY_PARALLELISM
        3. Clustered Databases
          1. CLUSTER_DATABASE
          2. CLUSTER_DATABASE_INSTANCES
          3. CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS
          4. DELAYED_LOGGING_BLOCK_CLEANOUTS
          5. DRS_START
          6. GC_DEFER_TIME
          7. GC_FILES_TO_LOCKS
          8. GC_LCK_PROCS
          9. GC_RELEASABLE_LOCKS
          10. GC_ROLLBACK_LOCKS
          11. INSTANCE_GROUPS
          12. INSTANCE_NAME
          13. INSTANCE_NUMBER
          14. LM_LOCKS
          15. LM_PROCS
          16. LM_RESS
          17. LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
          18. MAX_COMMIT_PROPAGATION_DELAY
          19. OPS_ADMIN_GROUP
          20. PARALLEL_SERVER
          21. PARALLEL_SERVER_IDLE_TIME
          22. PARALLEL_SERVER_INSTANCES
        4. Cursors
          1. CLOSE_CACHED_OPEN_CURSORS
          2. CURSOR_SHARING
          3. CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME
          4. OPEN_CURSORS
          5. ROW_CACHE_CURSORS
          6. SERIAL_REUSE
          7. SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
        5. Database Links
          1. DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN
          2. OPEN_LINKS
          3. OPEN_LINKS_PER_INSTANCE
        6. Distributed Operations and Heterogeneous Services
          1. COMMIT_POINT_STRENGTH
          2. DISTRIBUTED_LOCK_TIMEOUT
          3. DISTRIBUTED_RECOVERY_CONNECTION_HOLD_TIME
          4. DISTRIBUTED_TRANSACTIONS
          5. HS_AUTOREGISTER
          6. MAX_TRANSACTION_BRANCHES
        7. I/O and Space Management
          1. DB_BLOCK_CHECKING
          2. DB_BLOCK_SIZE
          3. DB_FILE_DIRECT_IO_COUNT
          4. DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT
          5. DB_FILE_SIMULTANEOUS_WRITES
          6. DB_FILES
          7. DISK_ASYNCH_IO
          8. HASH_MULTIBLOCK_IO_COUNT
          9. LGWR_IO_SLAVES
        8. Java
          1. JAVA_MAX_SESSIONSPACE_SIZE
          2. JAVA_POOL_SIZE
          3. JAVA_SOFT_SESSIONSPACE_LIMIT
        9. Jobs
          1. JOB_QUEUE_INTERVAL
          2. JOB_QUEUE_KEEP_CONNECTIONS
          3. JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
        10. Licenses
          1. LICENSE_MAX_SESSIONS
          2. LICENSE_MAX_USERS
          3. LICENSE_SESSIONS_WARNING
        11. Locking and Transactions
          1. DISCRETE_TRANSACTIONS_ENABLED
          2. DML_LOCKS
          3. ENQUEUE_RESOURCES
          4. ROW_LOCKING
          5. SPIN_COUNT
          6. TRANSACTIONS
          7. TRANSACTIONS_PER_ROLLBACK_SEGMENT
        12. Logging and Archiving
          1. ARCH_IO_SLAVES
          2. ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET
          3. CPU_COUNT
          4. DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n
          5. FAL_CLIENT
          6. FAL_SERVER
          7. LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE
          8. LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFERS
          9. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST
          10. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n
          11. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_n
          12. LOG_ARCHIVE_DUPLEX_DEST
          13. LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT
          14. LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES
          15. LOG_ARCHIVE_MIN_SUCCEED_DEST
          16. LOG_ARCHIVE_START
          17. LOG_ARCHIVE_TRACE
          18. LOG_FILES
          19. REMOTE_ARCHIVE_ENABLE
          20. TAPE_ASYNCH_IO
        13. Memory Management
          1. BITMAP_MERGE_AREA_SIZE
          2. BUFFER_POOL_KEEP
          3. BUFFER_POOL_RECYCLE
          4. CACHE_SIZE_THRESHOLD
          5. CREATE_BITMAP_AREA_SIZE
          6. DB_CACHE_ADVICE
          7. DB_nK_CACHE_SIZE
          8. DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS
          9. DB_CACHE_SIZE
          10. DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE
          11. DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE
          12. HASH_AREA_SIZE
          13. HI_SHARED_MEMORY_ADDRESS
          14. LARGE_POOL_MIN_ALLOC
          15. LARGE_POOL_SIZE
          16. LOCK_SGA
          17. OBJECT_CACHE_MAX_SIZE_PERCENT
          18. OBJECT_CACHE_OPTIMAL_SIZE
          19. PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
          20. PRE_PAGE_SGA
          21. SEQUENCE_CACHE_ENTRIES
          22. SGA_MAX_SIZE
          23. SHARED_MEMORY_ADDRESS
          24. SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_MIN_ALLOC
          25. SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE
          26. SHARED_POOL_SIZE
          27. SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE
          28. SORT_AREA_SIZE
          29. USE_INDIRECT_DATA_BUFFERS
          30. WORKAREA_SIZE_POLICY
        14. Names
          1. DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST
          2. DB_DOMAIN
          3. DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
          4. DB_NAME
          5. ENT_DOMAIN_NAME
          6. GLOBAL_NAMES
          7. SERVICE_NAMES
        15. National Language Support (NLS)
          1. NLS_CALENDAR
          2. NLS_COMP
          3. NLS_CURRENCY
          4. NLS_DATE_FORMAT
          5. NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE
          6. NLS_DUAL_CURRENCY
          7. NLS_ISO_CURRENCY
          8. NLS_LANGUAGE
          9. NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS
          10. NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS
          11. NLS_SORT
          12. NLS_TERRITORY
          13. NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT
          14. NLS_TIMESTAMP_TZ_FORMAT
        16. Optimization and Performance
          1. B_TREE_BITMAP_PLANS
          2. BLANK_TRIMMING
          3. FAST_FULL_SCAN_ENABLED
          4. HASH_JOIN_ENABLED
          5. OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE
          6. OPTIMIZER_INDEX_CACHING
          7. OPTIMIZER_INDEX_COST_ADJ
          8. OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS
          9. OPTIMIZER_MODE
          10. OPTIMIZER_PERCENT_PARALLEL
          11. OPTIMIZER_SEARCH_LIMIT
          12. PARTITION_VIEW_ENABLED
          13. QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED
          14. QUERY_REWRITE_INTEGRITY
          15. READ_ONLY_OPEN_DELAYED
          16. SEQUENCE_CACHE_HASH_BUCKET
          17. STAR_TRANSFORMATION_ENABLED
          18. TIMED_OS_STATISTICS
          19. TIMED_STATISTICS
        17. Parallel Execution
          1. PARALLEL_ADAPTIVE_MULTI_USER
          2. PARALLEL_AUTOMATIC_TUNING
          3. PARALLEL_BROADCAST_ENABLED
          4. PARALLEL_DEFAULT_MAX_INSTANCES
          5. PARALLEL_EXECUTION_MESSAGE_SIZE
          6. PARALLEL_INSTANCE_GROUP
          7. PARALLEL_MAX_SERVERS
          8. PARALLEL_MIN_MESSAGE_POOL
          9. PARALLEL_MIN_PERCENT
          10. PARALLEL_MIN_SERVERS
          11. PARALLEL_THREADS_PER_CPU
          12. PARALLEL_TRANSACTION_RESOURCE_TIMEOUT
        18. Parameters
          1. IFILE
          2. SPFILE
        19. PL/SQL
          1. PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS
          2. PLSQL_LOAD_WITHOUT_COMPILE
          3. PLSQL_NATIVE_C_COMPILER
          4. PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_DIR
          5. PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_SUBDIR_COUNT
          6. PLSQL_NATIVE_LINKER
          7. PLSQL_NATIVE_MAKE_UTILITY
          8. PLSQL_V2_COMPATIBILITY
          9. UTL_FILE_DIR
        20. Remote Sites
          1. REMOTE_DEPENDENCIES_MODE
          2. REMOTE_LISTENER
          3. REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT
          4. REMOTE_OS_ROLES
        21. Rollback (Undo/Redo) Management
          1. CLEANUP_ROLLBACK_ENTRIES
          2. LOG_BLOCK_CHECKSUM
          3. LOG_BUFFER
          4. LOG_CHECKPOINT_INTERVAL
          5. LOG_CHECKPOINT_TIMEOUT
          6. LOG_CHECKPOINTS_TO_ALERT
          7. LOG_SIMULTANEOUS_COPIES
          8. LOG_SMALL_ENTRY_MAX_SIZE
          9. MAX_ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS
          10. ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS
          11. UNDO_MANAGEMENT
          12. UNDO_RETENTION
          13. UNDO_SUPPRESS_ERRORS
          14. UNDO_TABLESPACE
        22. Security
          1. MAX_ENABLED_ROLES
          2. O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY
          3. OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX
          4. OS_ROLES
          5. RDBMS_SERVER_DN
          6. REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE
          7. SQL92_SECURITY
        23. Shared Server/Multi-Threaded Server
          1. CIRCUITS
          2. DISPATCHERS
          3. MAX_DISPATCHERS
          4. MAX_SHARED_SERVERS
          5. MTS_CIRCUITS
          6. MTS_DISPATCHERS
          7. MTS_LISTENER_ADDRESS
          8. MTS_MAX_DISPATCHERS
          9. MTS_MAX_SERVERS
          10. MTS_MULTIPLE_LISTENERS
          11. MTS_RATE_LOG_SIZE
          12. MTS_RATE_SCALE
          13. MTS_SERVERS
          14. MTS_SERVICE
          15. SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS
        24. Sorts
          1. SORT_DIRECT_WRITES
          2. SORT_READ_FAC
          3. SORT_SPACEMAP_SIZE
          4. SORT_WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE
          5. SORT_WRITE_BUFFERS
        25. Standby Databases
          1. ACTIVE_INSTANCE_COUNT
          2. LOCK_NAME_SPACE
          3. STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST
          4. STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT
          5. STANDBY_PRESERVES_NAMES
        26. System Operations
          1. BACKGROUND_CORE_DUMP
          2. BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST
          3. CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME
          4. CONTROL_FILES
          5. CORE_DUMP_DEST
          6. DB_BLOCK_CHECKPOINT_BATCH
          7. DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM
          8. DB_BLOCK_LRU_EXTENDED_STATISTICS
          9. DB_BLOCK_LRU_LATCHES
          10. DB_BLOCK_LRU_STATISTICS
          11. DB_BLOCK_MAX_DIRTY_TARGET
          12. DB_WRITER_PROCESSES
          13. DBWR_IO_SLAVES
          14. MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE
          15. PROCESSES
          16. RESOURCE_LIMIT
          17. RESOURCE_MANAGER_PLAN
          18. SESSION_MAX_OPEN_FILES
          19. SESSIONS
          20. SHADOW_CORE_DUMP
          21. TEMPORARY_TABLE_LOCKS
          22. THREAD
          23. USE_ISM
        27. Oracle Trace
          1. ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_NAME
          2. ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_PATH
          3. ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_SIZE
          4. ORACLE_TRACE_ENABLE
          5. ORACLE_TRACE_FACILITY_NAME
          6. ORACLE_TRACE_FACILITY_PATH
          7. SQL_TRACE
          8. TRACE_ENABLED
          9. TRACEFILE_IDENTIFIER
          10. USER_DUMP_DEST
        28. Miscellaneous Parameters
          1. ALWAYS_ANTI_JOIN
          2. AQ_TM_PROCESSES
          3. COMPATIBLE
          4. COMPATIBLE_NO_RECOVERY
          5. COMPLEX_VIEW_MERGING
          6. EVENT
          7. FIXED_DATE
          8. LOCAL_LISTENER
          9. LOGMNR_MAX_PERSISTENT_SESSIONS
          10. REPLICATION_DEPENDENCY_TRACKING
    3. 3. Concurrency
      1. Concurrency Concepts
        1. Transactions
        2. Locks
        3. Concurrency and Contention
        4. Integrity Problems
        5. Serialization
      2. Oracle and Concurrent User Access
        1. MVRC Implementation Features
        2. MVRC Syntax
          1. ALTER SESSION
          2. SET TRANSACTION
    4. 4. Security
      1. Authentication
        1. System Users
        2. Creating Users
          1. CREATE USER
          2. ALTER USER
      2. Profiles
        1. CREATE PROFILE
        2. ALTER PROFILE
        3. DROP PROFILE
      3. Privileges
        1. System Privileges
          1. AUDIT
          2. CLUSTER
          3. CONTEXT
          4. DATABASE
          5. DATABASE LINKS
          6. DEBUG
          7. DIMENSION
          8. DIRECTORY
          9. INDEX
          10. INDEXTYPE
          11. LIBRARY
          12. MATERIALIZED VIEW
          13. OPERATOR
          14. OUTLINE
          15. PROCEDURE
          16. PROFILE
          17. RESOURCE COST
          18. ROLE
          19. ROLLBACK SEGMENT
          20. SEQUENCE
          21. SESSION
          22. SNAPSHOT
          23. SYNONYM
          24. SYSTEM
          25. TABLE
          26. TABLESPACES
          27. TRIGGER
          28. TYPES
          29. USER
          30. VIEWS
          31. Miscellaneous Privileges
          32. Special System Privileges
        2. Schema Object Privileges
          1. Varieties of schema object privileges
          2. Schema objects and their privileges
            1. Directories
            2. External Tables
            3. Indextypes
            4. Libraries
            5. Materialized Views
            6. Operators
            7. Procedures, Functions, and Packages
            8. Sequences
            9. Tables
            10. User-defined Types
            11. Views
      4. Privileges and Users
        1. Common Keywords and Clauses
          1. GRANT
          2. REVOKE
      5. Roles
        1. System Roles
        2. Defining Roles
          1. CREATE ROLE
          2. ALTER ROLE
          3. DROP ROLE
          4. SET ROLE
      6. Auditing
        1. Auditing of System Actions
        2. Using Auditing
          1. AUDIT
          2. NOAUDIT
      7. Other Security Features
        1. Views and Stored Procedures
        2. Fine-grained Access Control and Security Policy
        3. Virtual Private Databases
        4. Label Security and Policy Manager
        5. Application Context
        6. Fine-grained Auditing
        7. LogMiner
        8. Oracle Advanced Security
        9. Oracle Internet Directory
        10. Invoker Rights
    5. 5. Networking
      1. Oracle Networking Fundamentals
        1. Making the Connection
        2. Failover
        3. Load Balancing
        4. Shared Servers
        5. Connection Manager
      2. Configuration Files
        1. SQLNET.ORA
          1. Keywords and syntax
        2. TNSNAMES.ORA
          1. Syntax
            1. description_information
            2. connect_information
        3. LDAP.ORA
          1. Keywords and clauses
        4. LISTENER.ORA
          1. Syntax
          2. Keywords and clauses
      3. Networking Management Utilities
        1. Listener Control Utility
          1. Calling the utility
          2. Listener Control utility commands
            1. CHANGE_PASSWORD
            2. EXIT
            3. HELP
            4. QUIT
            5. RELOAD
            6. SAVE_CONFIG
            7. SERVICES
            8. SET
            9. TNSPing
        2. Oracle Net Manager
        3. Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
    6. 6. Data Dictionary
      1. Static Data Dictionary Views
        1. Families of Views
        2. Commonly Used Static Data Dictionary Views
          1. Advanced Queuing
          2. Audit trail
          3. Change Data Capture
          4. Constraints
          5. Data dictionary
          6. External tables
          7. Indexes
          8. Jobs
          9. Large objects (LOBs)
          10. Locks
          11. Log groups
          12. Materialized views
          13. Networking and distributed transactions
          14. Objects Option
          15. Partitioning
          16. PL/SQL
          17. Replication
          18. Security
          19. Sequences
          20. Server management
          21. SQLJ
          22. Storage
          23. Synonyms
          24. Tables, clusters, and views
          25. Others
        3. Other Static Data Dictionary Views
          1. Export
          2. Gateways
          3. Oracle Parallel Server/Real Application Clusters
          4. Remote procedure calls
          5. Snapshots
          6. SQL*Loader
          7. Tablespace point-in-time recovery
      2. Dynamic Data Dictionary Views
        1. Availability of Dynamic Data Dictionary Views
        2. How Dynamic Data Dictionary Views Are Built
        3. Global Dynamic Performance Views (GV$ Views)
        4. Dynamic Views
          1. Advanced Queuing
          2. Configuration
          3. Data dictionary cache
          4. Database
          5. Instance
          6. Locks and latches
          7. Multi-Threaded Server/Shared Server
          8. Oracle Parallel Server/Real Application Clusters
          9. Parallel Query
          10. Recovery
          11. Replication
          12. Resource allocation
          13. Security
          14. Session
          15. SGA
          16. SQL
          17. SQL*Loader direct path
          18. System environment
  5. II. Languages
    1. 7. SQL
      1. Common Keywords and Identifiers
      2. Common SQL Clauses
        1. Autoextend_Clause
        2. Column_Constraint_Clause
        3. Constraint_State_Clause
        4. Index_Attributes_Clause
        5. LOB_Parameter_Clause
        6. LOB_Storage_Clause
        7. Partition_Clause
        8. Partition_Description_Clause
        9. Physical_Attributes_Clause
        10. Storage_Clause
        11. Table_Constraint_Clause
        12. Varray_Storage Clause
      3. Data Definition Statements
        1. ALTER RESOURCE COST
        2. ALTER SYSTEM
        3. ASSOCIATE STATISTICS
        4. AUDIT (Schema Objects)
        5. AUDIT (SQL Statements)
        6. CALL
        7. COMMENT
        8. CREATE/ALTER/DROP CLUSTER
        9. CREATE/DROP CONTEXT
        10. CREATE CONTROLFILE
        11. CREATE/ALTER DATABASE
        12. CREATE/DROP DATABASE LINK
        13. CREATE/DROP DIMENSION
        14. CREATE/DROP DIRECTORY
        15. CREATE/ALTER/DROP FUNCTION
        16. CREATE/ALTER/DROP INDEX
        17. CREATE/DROP INDEXTYPE
        18. CREATE/ALTER/DROP JAVA
        19. CREATE/DROP LIBRARY
        20. CREATE/ALTER/DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW
        21. CREATE/ALTER/DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG
        22. CREATE/ALTER/DROP OPERATOR
        23. CREATE/ALTER/DROP OUTLINE
        24. CREATE/ALTER/DROP PACKAGE
        25. CREATE/ALTER/DROP PACKAGE BODY
        26. CREATE/ALTER/DROP PROCEDURE
        27. CREATE PFILE
        28. CREATE/ALTER/DROP PROFILE
        29. CREATE/ALTER/DROP ROLE
        30. CREATE/ALTER/DROP ROLLBACK SEGMENT
        31. CREATE SCHEMA
        32. CREATE/ALTER/DROP SEQUENCE
        33. CREATE/ALTER/DROP SNAPSHOT
        34. CREATE/ALTER/DROP SNAPSHOT LOG
        35. CREATE SPFILE
        36. CREATE/DROP SYNONYM
        37. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLE (Relational Syntax)
        38. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLE (Object Syntax)
        39. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLE (XML Syntax)
        40. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLESPACE
        41. CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE
        42. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TRIGGER
        43. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TYPE
        44. CREATE/DROP TYPE BODY
        45. CREATE/ALTER/DROP USER
        46. CREATE/ALTER/DROP VIEW
        47. DISASSOCIATE STATISTICS
        48. GRANT (Object Privileges)
        49. GRANT (System Privilege or Role)
        50. NOAUDIT (Schema Objects)
        51. NOAUDIT (SQL Statements)
        52. RENAME
        53. REVOKE (Object Privileges)
        54. REVOKE (System Privilege or Role)
      4. Data Manipulation Statements
        1. ALTER SESSION
        2. ANALYZE
        3. DELETE
        4. EXPLAIN PLAN
        5. INSERT
        6. MERGE
        7. SAVEPOINT
        8. SELECT
        9. SET CONSTRAINT
        10. SET ROLE
        11. SET TRANSACTION
        12. TRUNCATE
        13. UPDATE
    2. 8. Functions
      1. Common Keywords and Clauses
      2. Aggregate and Analytic Functions
        1. GROUP BY
        2. DISTINCT and ALL
        3. Analytic Clause
        4. Parameters
          1. AVG
          2. CORR
          3. COUNT
          4. COVAR_POP
          5. COVAR_SAMP
          6. CUME_DIST
            1. Parameters
          7. DENSE_RANK
          8. FIRST_VALUE
          9. GROUP_ID
          10. GROUPING
          11. GROUPING_ID
          12. KEEP
            1. Parameters
          13. LAG
            1. Parameters
          14. LAST_VALUE
          15. LEAD
            1. Parameters
          16. MAX
          17. MIN
          18. NTILE
            1. Parameters
          19. PERCENT_RANK
            1. Parameters
          20. PERCENTILE_CONT
            1. Parameters
          21. PERCENTILE_DISC
            1. Parameters
          22. RANK
            1. Parameters
          23. RATIO_TO_REPORT
            1. Parameters
          24. REGR . . .
            1. Parameters
          25. ROW_NUMBER
          26. STDDEV
          27. STDDEV_POP
          28. STDDEV_SAMP
          29. SUM
          30. VAR_POP
          31. VAR_SAMP
          32. VARIANCE
      3. Numeric Functions
        1. ABS
        2. ACOS
        3. ASIN
        4. ATAN
        5. ATAN2
        6. BITAND
        7. CEIL
        8. COS
        9. COSH
        10. EXP
        11. FLOOR
        12. GREATEST
        13. LEAST
        14. LN
        15. LOG
        16. MOD
        17. POWER
          1. Parameters
        18. ROUND
        19. SIGN
        20. SIN
        21. SINH
        22. SQRT
        23. TAN
        24. TANH
        25. TRUNC
        26. WIDTH_BUCKET
          1. Parameters
      4. Character Functions
        1. ASCII
        2. CHR
          1. Parameters
        3. CONCAT
        4. INITCAP
        5. INSTR . . .
          1. Parameters
        6. LENGTH . . .
        7. LOWER
        8. LPAD
          1. Parameters
        9. LTRIM
          1. Parameters
        10. NLS_INITCAP
          1. Parameters
        11. NLS_LOWER
          1. Parameters
        12. NLS_UPPER
          1. Parameters
        13. NLSSORT
          1. Parameters
        14. REPLACE
          1. Parameters
        15. RPAD
          1. Parameters
        16. RTRIM
          1. Parameters
        17. SOUNDEX
        18. SUBSTR . . .
          1. Parameters
        19. TRANSLATE
          1. Parameters
        20. TREAT
          1. Parameters
        21. TRIM
          1. Parameters
        22. UPPER
      5. Date and Time Functions
        1. ADD_MONTHS
          1. Parameter
        2. CURRENT_DATE
        3. CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
        4. DBTIMEZONE
        5. EXTRACT
          1. Parameters
        6. FROM_TZ
          1. Parameters
        7. INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND
          1. Parameters
          2. Examples
        8. INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH
          1. Parameters
        9. LAST_DAY
        10. LOCAL_TIMESTAMP
        11. MONTHS_BETWEEN
        12. NEW_TIME
        13. NEXT_DAY
          1. Parameters
        14. NUMTODSINTERVAL
          1. Parameters
        15. NUMTOYMINTERVAL
          1. Parameters
        16. ROUND
        17. SESSIONTIMEZONE
        18. SYS_EXTRACT_UTC
          1. Parameter
        19. SYSDATE
        20. SYSTIMESTAMP
        21. TO_DSINTERVAL
          1. Parameters
        22. TO_TIMESTAMP
          1. Parameters
        23. TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ
          1. Parameters
        24. TO_YMINTERVAL
        25. TRUNC
        26. TZ_OFFSET
          1. Parameters
      6. Conversion Functions
        1. ASCIISTR
        2. BIN_TO_NUM
        3. CAST
          1. Parameters
        4. CHARTOROWID
        5. COMPOSE
        6. CONVERT
          1. Parameters
        7. DECOMPOSE
        8. HEXTORAW
        9. NUMTODSINTERVAL
          1. Parameters
        10. NUMTOYMINTERVAL
          1. Parameters
        11. RAWTOHEX
        12. RAWTONHEX
        13. ROWIDTOCHAR
        14. ROWIDTONCHAR
        15. TO_CHAR (character)
        16. TO_CHAR(datetime)
          1. Parameter
        17. TO_CHAR (number)
          1. Parameter
        18. TO_CLOB
          1. Parameters
        19. TO_DATE
          1. Parameters
        20. TO_DSINTERVAL
          1. Parameters
        21. TO_LOB
        22. TO_MULTI_BYTE
        23. TO_NCHAR (character)
        24. TO_NCHAR (datetime)
          1. Parameters
        25. TO_NCHAR (number)
        26. TO_NCLOB
        27. TO_NUMBER
          1. Parameters
        28. TO_SINGLE_BYTE
        29. TO_YMINTERVAL
        30. TRANSLATE . . . USING
          1. Parameters
        31. UNISTR
      7. Object Functions
        1. DEREF
        2. MAKE_REF
        3. REF
        4. REFTOHEX
        5. VALUE
      8. XML Functions
        1. EXISTSNODE
          1. Parameters
        2. EXTRACT (XML)
          1. Parameters
        3. EXTRACTVALUE
          1. Parameters
        4. SYS_XMLAGG
        5. SYS_XMLGEN
        6. UPDATEXML
          1. Parameters
        7. XMLAGG
          1. Parameters
        8. XMLCOLATTVAL
        9. XMLCONCAT
          1. Parameters
        10. XMLELEMENT
        11. XMLFOREST
        12. XMLSEQUENCE
          1. Parameters
        13. XMLTRANSFORM
          1. Parameters
      9. Miscellaneous Functions
        1. BFILENAME
          1. Parameters
        2. COALESCE
        3. DECODE
          1. Parameters
        4. DEPTH
        5. DUMP
          1. Parameters
        6. EMPTY_BLOB
        7. EMPTY_CLOB
        8. NLS_CHARSET_DECL_LEN
          1. Parameters
        9. NLS_CHARSET_ID
        10. NLS_CHARSET_NAME
        11. NULLIF
        12. NVL
        13. NVL2
        14. PATH
        15. SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH
        16. SYS_CONTEXT
          1. Parameters
        17. SYS_DBURIGEN
        18. SYS_EXTRACT_UTC
        19. SYS_GUID
        20. SYS_TYPEID
        21. UID
        22. USER
        23. USERENV
          1. Parameters
        24. VSIZE
    3. 9. PL/SQL
      1. PL/SQL Fundamentals
        1. Character Set
        2. Identifiers
        3. Literals
          1. Numeric, string, and Boolean literals
          2. Datetime interval literals
        4. Delimiters
        5. Block Structure
      2. Header Section
        1. Types of Blocks
        2. Parameters
          1. Syntax
          2. Keywords
        3. Parameter-Passing Notation
      3. Declaration Section
        1. Datatypes
          1. Constrained/unconstrained declarations
        2. Variables
          1. Default values
          2. NOT NULL
        3. Constants
        4. Cursor Variables
          1. Declaring explicit cursors
          2. Restrictions on cursor variables
        5. REF CURSOR Variables
        6. Anchored Declarations
        7. Programmer-Defined Subtypes
        8. Records
          1. Types of records
          2. Nested records
        9. Collections
          1. Associative Array
            1. Keywords
          2. Nested Table
            1. Keywords
          3. VARRAY
            1. Keywords
        10. Creating Collections
        11. Exceptions
        12. Forward Declarations
      4. Execution Section
        1. Statements
        2. Conditional Control Statements
          1. IF-THEN-ELSE
          2. CASE (Statement)
          3. CASE (Expression)
        3. Sequential Control Statements
          1. GOTO
            1. Restrictions
          2. NULL
        4. Loop Statements
          1. Simple Loop
          2. Numeric FOR Loop
          3. Cursor FOR Loop
          4. WHILE Loop
        5. Explicit Cursors
          1. OPEN
            1. Keywords
          2. FETCH
            1. Keyword
          3. CLOSE
            1. Keyword
          4. Explicit Cursor Attributes
            1. Keywords
        6. Implicit Cursors
          1. Syntax
          2. Keywords
        7. Dynamic Cursors and SQL
          1. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE
            1. Keywords
        8. Using Cursor Variables
          1. OPEN. . .FOR
        9. Using Cursor Expressions
          1. CURSOR
        10. Using Records
        11. Using Collections
          1. Collection functions and methods
          2. Initializing collections
          3. Adding and removing elements
          4. Privileges
          5. Nested collections
        12. Bulk Binds
          1. FOR ALL
            1. Keywords
          2. BULK COLLECT INTO
            1. Keywords
        13. Transaction Management
          1. COMMIT
            1. Keywords
          2. ROLLBACK
            1. Keyword
          3. SAVEPOINT
            1. Keyword
          4. SET TRANSACTION
            1. Keyword
          5. LOCK TABLE
            1. Keywords
        14. Autonomous Transactions
      5. Exception Section
        1. Raising Exceptions
          1. RAISE
            1. Keyword
          2. RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR
            1. Keywords
        2. Exception Scope
        3. Exception Propagation
          1. WHEN OTHERS Clause
          2. SQLCODE
          3. SQLERRM
      6. Pragmas
      7. Program Units
        1. Common Attributes
          1. Procedures
          2. Functions
          3. Table Functions
          4. Local Programs
        2. Program Overloading
      8. Packages
        1. Package Structure
          1. Package Specification
          2. Package Body
        2. Referencing Package Elements
        3. Package Data
        4. SERIALLY_REUSABLE Pragma
        5. Package Initialization
      9. Triggers
        1. Trigger Statements
          1. CREATE TRIGGER
            1. Keywords
        2. Event Sequences
          1. DML events
          2. DDL events
          3. Database events
        3. Trigger Predicates
      10. Calling PL/SQL Functions in SQL
        1. Specifying the Function
          1. Syntax
          2. Keywords
          3. Requirements and restrictions
        2. RESTRICT_REFERENCES Pragma
        3. Caveats on Calling PL/SQL Functions From SQL
      11. Native Compilation of PL/SQL
      12. External Procedures
        1. CREATE PROCEDURE
          1. Keywords
      13. Java and PL/SQL
    4. 10. PL/SQL Packages
      1. DBMS_ALERT
        1. Calls
      2. DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO
        1. Calls
      3. DBMS_APPLY_ADM
        1. Calls
      4. DBMS_AQ
        1. Calls
      5. DBMS_AQADM
        1. Calls
      6. DBMS_AQELM
        1. Calls
      7. DBMS_CAPTURE_ADM
        1. Calls
      8. DBMS_DDL
        1. Calls
      9. DBMS_DEBUG
        1. Calls
      10. DBMS_DEFER
        1. Calls
      11. DBMS_DEFER_QUERY
      12. DBMS_DEFER_SYS
        1. Calls
      13. DBMS_DESCRIBE
        1. Call
      14. DBMS_DISTRIBUTED_TRUST_ADMIN
        1. Calls
      15. DBMS_FGA
        1. Calls
      16. DBMS_FLASHBACK
        1. Calls
      17. DBMS_HS
        1. Calls
      18. DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH
        1. Calls
      19. DBMS_IOT
        1. Calls
      20. DBMS_JOB
        1. Calls
      21. DBMS_LDAP
        1. Calls
      22. DBMS_LIBCACHE
        1. Call
      23. DBMS_LOB
        1. Calls
      24. DBMS_LOCK
        1. Calls
      25. DBMS_LOGMNR
        1. Calls
      26. DBMS_LOGMNR_CDC_PUBLISH
        1. Calls
      27. DBMS_LOGMNR_CDC_SUBSCRIBE
        1. Calls
      28. DBMS_LOGMNR_D
        1. Calls
      29. DBMS_LOGSTNDBY
        1. Calls
      30. DBMS_METADATA
        1. Calls
      31. DBMS_MGWADM
        1. Calls
      32. DBMA_MGWMSG
        1. Calls
      33. DBMS_MVIEW
        1. Calls
      34. DBMS_OBFUSCATION_TOOLKIT
        1. Calls
      35. DBMS_ODCI
        1. Call
      36. DBMS_OFFLINE_OG
        1. Calls
      37. DBMS_OFFLINE_SNAPSHOT
        1. Calls
      38. DBMS_OLAP
        1. Calls
      39. DBMS_ORACLE_TRACE_AGENT
        1. Call
      40. DBMS_ORACLE_TRACE_USER
        1. Call
      41. DBMS_OUTLN
        1. Calls
      42. DBMS_OUTLN_EDIT
        1. Calls
      43. DBMS_OUTPUT
        1. Calls
      44. DBMS_PCLXUTIL
        1. Call
      45. DBMS_PIPE
        1. Calls
      46. DBMS_PROFILER
        1. Calls
      47. DBMS_PROPAGATION_ADM
        1. Calls
      48. DBMS_RANDOM
        1. Calls
      49. DBMS_RECTIFIER_DIFF
        1. Calls
      50. DBMS_REDEFINITION
        1. Calls
      51. DBMS_REFRESH
        1. Calls
      52. DBMS_REPAIR
        1. Calls
      53. DBMS_REPCAT
        1. Calls
      54. DBMS_REPCAT_ADMIN
        1. Calls
      55. DBMS_REPCAT_AUTH
        1. Calls
      56. DBMS_REPCAT_INSTANTIATE
        1. Calls
      57. DBMS_REPCAT_RGT
        1. Calls
      58. DBMS_REPUTIL
        1. Calls
      59. DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER
        1. Calls
      60. DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER_PRIVS
        1. Calls
      61. DBMS_RESUMABLE
        1. Calls
      62. DBMS_RLS
        1. Calls
      63. DBMS_ROWID
        1. Calls
      64. DBMS_RULE
        1. Call
      65. DBMS_RULE_ADMIN
        1. Calls
      66. DBMS_SESSION
        1. Calls
      67. DBMS_SHARED_POOL
        1. Calls
      68. DBMS_SNAPSHOT
      69. DBMS_SPACE
        1. Calls
      70. DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN
        1. Calls
      71. DBMS_SQL
        1. Calls
      72. DBMS_STATS
        1. Calls
      73. DBMS_STORAGE_MAP
        1. Calls
      74. DBMS_STREAM_ADM
        1. Calls
      75. DBMS_STREAMS
        1. Calls
      76. DBMS_SYSTEM
        1. Calls
      77. DBMS_TRACE
        1. Calls
      78. DBMS_TRANSACTION
        1. Calls
      79. DBMS_TRANSFORM
        1. Calls
      80. DBMS_TTS
        1. Calls
      81. DBMS_TYPES
      82. DBMS_UTILITY
        1. Calls
      83. DBMS_WM
        1. Calls
      84. DBMS_XDB
        1. Calls
      85. DBMS_XDBT
        1. Calls
      86. DBMS_XDB_VERSION
        1. Calls
      87. DBMS_XMLDOM
        1. Calls
          1. General calls
          2. DOM node methods
          3. DOM named node map methods
          4. DOM node list methods
          5. DOM attribute methods
          6. DOM character data methods
          7. DOM Implementation methods
          8. DOM Document Type methods
          9. DOM Element methods
          10. DOM Entity methods
          11. DOM Notation methods
          12. DOM Processing Instruction methods
          13. DOM Text methods
          14. DOM Document methods
      88. DBMS_XMLGEN
        1. Calls
      89. DBMS_XMLPARSER
        1. Calls
      90. DBMS_XMLQUERY
        1. Calls
      91. DBMS_XMLSAVE
        1. Calls
      92. DBMS_XMLSCHEMA
        1. Calls
      93. DBMS_XPLAN
        1. Call
      94. DBMS_XSLPROCESSOR
        1. Calls
      95. DEBUG_EXTPROC
        1. Call
      96. OUTLN_PKG
      97. UTL_COLL
        1. Call
      98. UTL_ENCODE
        1. Calls
      99. UTL_FILE
        1. Calls
      100. UTL_HTTP
        1. Calls
          1. Simple HTTP fetches
          2. HTTP session settings
          3. HTTP requests
          4. HTTP responses
          5. HTTP cookies
          6. HTTP persistent connections
          7. HTTP error conditions
      101. UTL_INADDR
        1. Calls
      102. UTL_RAW
        1. Calls
      103. UTL_REF
        1. Calls
      104. UTL_SMTP
        1. Calls
      105. UTL_TCP
        1. Calls
      106. UTL_URL
        1. Calls
    5. 11. Java and Oracle
      1. Java Drivers
      2. Java in the Oracle Database
        1. Compiling and Loading Java
          1. loadjava
          2. dropjava
        2. Creating a PL/SQL Wrapper
      3. Data Mapping
      4. SQLJ
        1. Imports
        2. Compiling SQLJ Code
        3. Using SQL with SQLJ
        4. SQL Iterators
          1. Named iterators
          2. Positional iterators
        5. PL/SQL in SQLJ
        6. Database Objects and JPublish
        7. SQLJ Methods
          1. connect
            1. Variables
          2. close
            1. Variables
          3. getConnection
            1. Variables
          4. setDefaultRowPrefetch
            1. Variables
          5. setFetchSize
          6. getDefaultRowPrefetch
            1. Variables
          7. getFetchSize
          8. setDefaultContext
            1. Variables
          9. getExecutionContext
            1. Variables
          10. getMaxRows
            1. Variables
          11. setMaxRows
            1. Variables
          12. getQueryTimeout
            1. Variables
          13. setQueryTimeout
            1. Variables
          14. getResultSet
          15. getSQLState
          16. getUpdateCount
            1. Variables
          17. getWarnings
            1. Variables
          18. setBatching
          19. isBatching
          20. executeBatch
            1. Variables
          21. setBatchLimits
            1. Keywords
      5. JDBC
        1. oracle.jdbc
        2. oracle.jdbc Interfaces
          1. OracleCallableStatement
            1. Inherited fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          2. OracleConnection
            1. Fields
            2. Inherited fields
            3. Methods
            4. Inherited methods
          3. OracleJdbc2SQLInput
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          4. OracleOCIFailover
            1. Fields
            2. Method
          5. OracleParameterMetaData
            1. Fields
            2. Methods
          6. OraclePreparedStatement
            1. Fields
            2. Inherited fields
            3. Methods
            4. Inherited methods
          7. OracleResultSet
            1. Inherited fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          8. OracleResultSetCache
            1. Methods
          9. OracleResultSetMetaData
            1. Inherited fields
            2. Method
            3. Inherited methods
          10. OracleSavepoint
            1. Methods
          11. OracleStatement
            1. Fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          12. StructMetaData
            1. Inherited fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
        3. oracle.jdbc Classes
          1. OracleConnectionWrapper
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          2. OracleDatabaseMetaData
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          3. OracleDriver
            1. Inherited fields
            2. Inherited methods
          4. OracleTypes
            1. Fields
            2. Inherited methods
        4. oracle.sql
        5. oracle.jdbc Interfaces
          1. CustomDatum
            1. Method
          2. CustomDatumFactory
            1. Method
          3. Mutable
            1. Method
          4. ORAData
            1. Method
          5. ORADataFactory
            1. Method
        6. oracle.sql Classes
          1. ARRAY
            1. Fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          2. ArrayDescriptor
            1. Fields
            2. Inherited fields
            3. Methods
            4. Inherited methods
          3. BFILE
            1. Fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          4. BLOB
            1. Fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          5. CHAR
            1. Field
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          6. CharacterSet
            1. Fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          7. CLOB
            1. Fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          8. DATE
            1. Fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          9. Datum
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          10. DatumWithConnection
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          11. INTERVALYM
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          12. JAVA_STRUCT
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          13. NUMBER
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          14. OPAQUE
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          15. OpaqueDescriptor
            1. Inherited fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          16. OracleSQLOutput
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          17. RAW
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          18. REF
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          19. ROWID
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          20. STRUCT
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          21. StructDescriptor
            1. Inherited fields
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
          22. TIMESTAMP
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          23. TIMESTAMPLTZ
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          24. TIMESTAMPTZ
            1. Methods
            2. Inherited methods
          25. TypeDescriptor
            1. Field
            2. Methods
            3. Inherited methods
  6. III. Tools and Utilities
    1. 12. SQL*Plus
      1. Running SQL*Plus
        1. Entering SQL*Plus Commands
          1. Entering SQL*Plus commands
          2. Entering SQL statements
          3. Entering PL /SQL blocks
        2. Strings in SQL*Plus Commands
        3. Specifying Filenames
        4. Naming Variables
      2. Formatting Text Reports
        1. Column Headings
        2. Column Formats
        3. Page Width and Length
        4. Page Headers and Footers
          1. Defining a title
          2. Getting the date into a title
        5. Page Breaks
        6. Report Breaks
          1. BREAK command
          2. COMPUTE command
      3. SQL*Plus Format Elements
        1. Formatting Numbers
        2. Formatting Character Strings
        3. Formatting Dates
      4. Commands
        1. /*...*/
        2. -- (Double Hyphen)
        3. @ (At Sign)
          1. Parameters
        4. @@ (Double At Sign)
        5. / (Forward Slash)
        6. ACCEPT
          1. Parameters
        7. APPEND
        8. ARCHIVE LOG
          1. Parameters
        9. ATTRIBUTE
          1. Parameters
        10. BREAK
          1. Parameters
        11. BTITLE
        12. CHANGE
          1. Parameters
        13. CLEAR
          1. Parameters
        14. COLUMN
          1. Parameters
        15. COMPUTE
          1. Parameters
        16. CONNECT
          1. Parameters
        17. COPY
          1. Parameters
        18. DEFINE
          1. Parameters
        19. DEL
          1. Parameters
        20. DESCRIBE
          1. Parameters
        21. DISCONNECT
        22. EDIT
        23. EXECUTE
        24. EXIT
          1. Parameters
        25. GET
          1. Parameters
        26. HELP
          1. Parameters
        27. HOST
        28. INPUT
        29. LIST
          1. Parameters
        30. PASSWORD
          1. Parameter
        31. PAUSE
        32. PRINT
          1. Parameters
        33. PROMPT
          1. Parameters
        34. QUIT
        35. RECOVER
          1. Parameters
        36. REMARK
        37. REPFOOTER
        38. REPHEADER
        39. RUN
        40. SAVE
          1. Parameters
        41. SET
          1. SET commands
        42. SHOW
          1. Parameters
        43. SHUTDOWN
          1. Parameters
        44. SPOOL
          1. Parameters
        45. START
        46. STARTUP
          1. Parameters
        47. STORE
          1. Parameters
        48. TIMING
          1. Parameters
        49. TTITLE
          1. Parameters
        50. UNDEFINE
          1. Parameter
        51. VARIABLE
          1. Parameters
        52. WHENEVER
          1. Parameters
    2. 13. Export and Import
      1. Export/Import Fundamentals
        1. Interactive Operation
          1. Export prompts
          2. Import prompts
        2. Command-Line Operation
      2. Common Parameters
      3. Export-Only Parameters
      4. Import-Only Parameters
    3. 14. SQL*Loader
      1. Running SQL*Loader
      2. Command-Line Parameters
      3. Control File
        1. LOAD
          1. Keywords
        2. INFILE CLAUSE
          1. Keywords
        3. INTO TABLE Clause
          1. Keywords
        4. Field Clause
          1. Keywords
        5. LOB, BFILE, Object, and Collection Clauses
          1. LOB Data Syntax
          2. BFILE Data Syntax
          3. Object Data Syntax
          4. Collection Data Syntax
        6. Datatype Clause
          1. Keywords
        7. Concatenation Clauses
    4. 15. Backup and Recovery
      1. Backup and Recovery Fundamentals
      2. User-Managed Backup and Recovery
        1. How to Perform User-Managed Backup
          1. Determining the files to back up
          2. Backing up datafiles
          3. Backing up log files
          4. Backing up the control file
          5. Backing up miscellaneous files
        2. How to Perform User-Managed Recovery
          1. Restoring datafiles
            1. Determining the files to recover.
            2. Copying backup files.
            3. Restoring the database.
          2. Restoring the control file
        3. Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery
        4. Backup and Recovery Commands
          1. ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE
          2. ALTER DATABASE OPEN
          3. ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND/RESUME
          4. CREATE CONTROLFILE
          5. DBVERIFY
          6. OCOPY
          7. RECOVER
          8. STARTUP MOUNT
      3. Recovery Manager (RMAN)
        1. RMAN Fundamentals
        2. Running RMAN
        3. Using RMAN Scripts
        4. Using RMAN Commands
        5. Common RMAN Parameters and Identifiers
        6. Common RMAN Clauses
          1. allocOperand Clause
          2. archivelogRecordSpecifier Clause
          3. completedTimeSpec Clause
          4. keepOption Clause
          5. listObjList Clause
          6. mntQualifier Clause
          7. obsoleteOpersList Clause
          8. recordSpec Clause
          9. until Clause
        7. RMAN Commands
          1. @ (At Sign)
          2. @@ (Double At Sign)
          3. ALLOCATE CHANNEL
          4. ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE
          5. ALTER DATABASE
          6. BACKUP
          7. BLOCKRECOVER
          8. CATALOG
          9. CHANGE
          10. CONFIGURE
          11. CONNECT
          12. COPY
          13. CREATE CATALOG
          14. CREATE SCRIPT
          15. CROSSCHECK
          16. DELETE
          17. DELETE SCRIPT
          18. DROP CATALOG
          19. DUPLICATE
          20. EXECUTE SCRIPT
          21. EXIT
          22. HOST
          23. LIST
          24. PRINT SCRIPT
          25. QUIT
          26. RECOVER
          27. REGISTER
          28. RELEASE CHANNEL
          29. REPLACE SCRIPT
          30. REPLICATE
          31. REPORT
          32. RESET DATABASE
          33. RESTORE
          34. RESYNC
          35. RUN
          36. SEND
          37. SET
          38. SHOW
          39. SHUTDOWN
          40. SPOOL
          41. SQL
          42. STARTUP
          43. SWITCH
          44. UPGRADE CATALOG
          45. VALIDATE
    5. 16. Enterprise Manager
      1. Architecture
        1. Three-Tier Configuration
        2. Two-Tier Configuration
      2. Running Enterprise Manager
      3. Enterprise Manager Interface
        1. Console Areas
        2. Views
      4. Enterprise Manager Administration
        1. Jobs
        2. Events
        3. Wizards
      5. Expansion Packs
        1. Diagnostics Pack
        2. Tuning Pack
        3. Change Management Pack
        4. Standard Management Pack
        5. Management Pack for Oracle Applications
        6. Management Pack for SAP R/3
        7. DBA Management Pack and DBA Studio
      6. OEMUTIL
        1. Running OEMUTIL
        2. OEMUTIL Commands
          1. changeCredentials
            1. Keywords
          2. deregisterEvent
            1. Keywords
          3. omsCredentials
          4. registerEventFromLibrary
            1. Keywords
          5. submitJob
            1. Keywords
          6. submitJobFromLibrary
            1. Keywords
    6. 17. Performance
      1. SQL Optimization
        1. Rule-based Optimizer
        2. Cost-based Optimizer
        3. Statistics
          1. Gathering statistics
          2. Stored statistics
          3. Histograms
        4. Optimizer Modes
        5. Hints
          1. Optimizer mode hints
          2. Access path hints
          3. Query transformation hints
          4. Join hints
          5. Parallel execution hints
          6. Miscellaneous hints
        6. Stored Outlines and Plan Stability
          1. Creating outlines
          2. Using outlines
          3. Private outlines
      2. EXPLAIN PLAN
        1. Preparing to Run EXPLAIN PLAN
        2. Executing EXPLAIN PLAN
        3. PLAN_TABLE Columns
      3. TKPROF
        1. Preparing for a Trace
        2. Collecting Trace Information
        3. Running TKPROF
          1. Syntax
          2. Keywords
        4. TKPROF Output
      4. AUTOTRACE
      5. Statistics Collection
        1. UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT
        2. Statspack
          1. Installing Statspack
          2. Using Statspack
          3. Reporting on Statspack data
          4. Statspack levels and thresholds
          5. Removing Statspack data
  7. IV. Appendixes
    1. A. Datatypes
      1. Scalar Datatypes
        1. Character Datatypes
        2. Numeric Datatypes
        3. Datetime Datatypes
          1. DATE datatype
          2. INTERVAL datatypes
          3. TIMESTAMP datatypes
        4. Large Object Datatypes
        5. Other Scalar Datatypes
      2. Collection Datatypes
        1. Collection Operators
      3. Reference Datatypes
    2. B. Expressions, Operators, and Conditions
      1. Expressions
      2. Operators
      3. Conditions
        1. Simple Conditions
        2. Group Conditions
        3. Logical Conditions
        4. Other Conditions
    3. C. Numeric Formats
    4. D. Date Formats
    5. E. Additional Resources
      1. Web Sites
      2. Books
        1. General
        2. Security
        3. Networking
        4. SQL
        5. PL/SQL
        6. Packages
        7. Java
        8. SQL*Plus
        9. SQL*Loader
        10. Backup and Recovery
        11. Enterprise Manager
        12. Performance
  8. Index
  9. About the Authors
  10. Colophon
  11. Copyright