Factors that influence political behavior (low to high):

Individual factors

  • High self-monitors

  • Internal locus of control

  • High Mach personality

  • Organizational investment

  • Perceived job alternatives

  • Expectations of success

Organizational factors

  • Reallocation of resources

  • Promotion opportunities

  • Low trust

  • Role ambiguity

  • Unclear performance evaluation system

  • Zero-sum reward practices

  • Democratic decision making

  • High performance pressures

  • Self-serving senior managers

Favorable outcomes:

  • Rewards

  • Averted punishments

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