1. 1 Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

No company today is in a particularly stable environment. Even those with a dominant market share must change, sometimes radically. For example, the market for smartphones has been especially volatile.1 During the fourth quarter of 2014, there were 74.8 million iPhones sold, compared with 73 million Samsung sales. Contrast this with the fourth quarter of 2013, in which considerably fewer (50.2 million) iPhones were sold, versus considerably more (83.3 million) Samsung phones. At the same time, the Chinese mobile phone company ­Xiaomi has been rapidly rising. A look just a few years further back shows formerly dominant players like Nokia or Research in Motion (makers of the Blackberry) ...

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