Organizational culture has been the focus of the analysis so far, but as pointed out earlier, both DEC and Ciba-Geigy existed in national and regional macrocultures. To fully understand what goes on inside the organization, it is necessary to understand both the organization's macro context, because much of what you observe inside simply reflects the national culture, and the interplay of subcultures because they often reflect the primary occupational cultures of the organization members.

Much of what goes on inside an organization that has existed for some time can best be understood as a set of interactions of subcultures operating within the larger context of the organizational culture. ...

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