Culture in general can be analyzed at several different levels, with the term “level” meaning the degree to which the cultural phenomenon is visible to you as participant or observer. These levels range from the very tangible, overt manifestations that you can see and feel to the deeply embedded, unconscious, basic assumptions that we are defining as the essence of culture or its DNA. In between these layers are various espoused beliefs, values, norms, and rules of behavior that members of the culture use as a way of depicting the culture to themselves and others. The three major levels of cultural analysis are shown in Figure 2.1

Three Levels of Analysis

Artifacts—Visible and Feelable Phenomena

We think of artifacts as the phenomena that you would see, hear, and feel when you encounter a new group with an unfamiliar culture. Artifacts include the visible products of the group, such as the architecture of its physical environment; its language; its technology and products; its artistic creations; its style, as embodied ...

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