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Packet Guide to Core Network Protocols

Book Description

Take an in-depth tour of core Internet protocols and learn how they work together to move data packets from one network to another. With this updated edition, you’ll dive into the aspects of each protocol, including operation basics and security risks, and learn the function of network hardware such as switches and routers. New chapters examine the transmission control protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol in detail.

Ideal for beginning network engineers, each chapter in this book includes a set of review questions, as well as practical, hands-on lab exercises.

You’ll explore topics including:

  • Basic network architecture: how protocols and functions fit together
  • The structure and operation of the Ethernet protocol
  • TCP/IP protocol fields, operations, and addressing used for networks
  • The address resolution process in a typical IPv4 network
  • Switches, access points, routers, and components that process packets
  • TCP details, including packet content and client-server packet flow
  • How the Internet Control Message Protocol provides error messages during network operations
  • How network mask (subnetting) helps determine the network
  • The operation, structure, and common uses of the user datagram protocol

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
    1. Audience
    2. Supporting Materials
    3. Contents of This Book
    4. Conventions Used in This Book
    5. Using Code Examples
    6. O’Reilly Safari
    7. How to Contact Us
    8. Content Updates
      1. September 28, 2012
      2. May 21, 2014
    9. Acknowledgments
  2. 1. Networking Models
    1. What Is a Model?
    2. Why Use a Model?
    3. OSI Model
      1. OSI—Beyond the Layers
      2. OSI/ITU-T Protocols
    4. Introducing TCP/IP
      1. TCP/IP and the RFCs
      2. The Practical Side of TCP/IP
      3. Encapsulation
      4. Addressing
      5. Equipment
    5. Summary
    6. Additional Reading
    7. Review Questions
    8. Review Answers
    9. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Examining Encapsulation
      2. Activity 2—Protocol Distribution
      3. Activity 3—Developing a Protocol/Architecture
  3. 2. Ethernet
    1. Remember the Models
    2. Structure
      1. Preamble
      2. Source and Destination MAC Addresses
      3. Control Field (Type)
      4. Data Field
      5. Frame Check Sequence
    3. Ethernet Type II Versus 802.3
    4. MAC Addresses—Another Look
    5. Ethernet Operation
    6. Shared Media
    7. Physical Layer
      1. Cabling
    8. Encoding
      1. 10Base-T
      2. 100Base-T
      3. 1000Base-T
    9. Other Types of Signaling
      1. Link Pulse
      2. Autonegotiation
    10. Topologies
    11. Final Thoughts on Ethernet
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Reading
    14. Review Questions
    15. Review Answers
    16. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Basic Framing
      2. Activity 2—Control Field Values
      3. Activity 3—Addressing
      4. Activity 4—Destination Addresses
      5. Activity 5—Logical Link Control
  4. 3. Internet Protocol
    1. Protocol Description
    2. Structure
    3. Addressing
      1. Sample Host Configuration
    4. Operation
    5. Digging a Little Deeper—What Addressing Is Sufficient?
    6. Security Warning
    7. Organizations for Assigning Addresses and Names
    8. Summary
    9. Additional Reading
    10. Review Questions
    11. Review Answers
    12. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Determining IP Address Components
      2. Activity 2—IP Packet Capture
      3. Activity 3—Header Checksum
      4. Activity 4—Fragmentation
      5. Activity 5—Special Address Capture
  5. 4. Address Resolution Protocol
    1. The Problem
    2. Techniques
    3. Protocol Description
    4. Structure
    5. Addressing in the ARP Request
    6. Addressing in the ARP Reply
    7. Operation
      1. Example 1—Sender and Target on the Same LAN
      2. Example 2—Sender and Target on Separate LANs
    8. Additional Operations
      1. The Return ARP
      2. Gratuitous ARP
    9. Security Warning
    10. IPv6
    11. Digging a Little Deeper—The Cost of a Distributed Approach
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Reading
    14. Review Questions
    15. Review Answers
    16. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Determining Your IP Address and Your Default Gateway
      2. Activity 2—Examining the ARP Table
      3. Activity 3—Packet Capture
      4. Activity 4—Gratuitous ARP
      5. Activity 5—How Long Does an ARP Table Entry Live?
  6. 5. Network Equipment
    1. Tables and Hosts
    2. Hubs or Repeaters
    3. Switches and Bridges
    4. Access Points
    5. Routers
      1. Another Gateway
    6. Multilayer Switches and Home Gateways
    7. Security Warning
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Review Answers
    11. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Traffic Comparison
      2. Activity 2—Layer 2 Trace
      3. Activity 3—Tables
      4. Activity 4—Layer 3 Trace
      5. Activity 5—Traffic Comparison
  7. 6. Internet Control Message Protocol
    1. Structure
    2. Operations and Types
      1. Echo Request (Type 0) and Echo Reply (Type 8)
      2. Redirect (Type 5)
      3. Time to Live Exceeded (Type 11)
      4. Tracing a Route
      5. Destination Unreachable (Type 3)
      6. Router Solicitation (Type 10) and Router Advertisements (Type 9)
    3. Digging a Little Deeper—The One’s Complement
    4. IPv6
    5. Summary
    6. Additional Reading
    7. Review Questions
    8. Review Answers
    9. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—ping
      2. Activity 2—tracert
      3. Activity 3—Startup Packet Capture
      4. Activity 4—Destination Unreachable from the OS
      5. Activity 5—Destination Unreachable from the Router
  8. 7. Subnetting and Other Masking Acrobatics
    1. How Do We Use the Mask?
    2. What Is a Subnet?
    3. Subnet Patterns
    4. Subnet IP Addressing
    5. A Shorthand Technique
    6. The Effect on Address Space
    7. Theory Versus Reality
    8. Supernetting
    9. The Supernetted Network
    10. Classless Inter-Domain Routing
    11. CIDR and Aggregation Implementation
      1. RFC 4632
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Reading
    14. Review Questions
    15. Review Answers
    16. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—What Is Your Network?
      2. Activity 2—Change Your Network
      3. Activity 3—What Is the Address Given to You by Your ISP?
      4. Activity 4—Subnet Calculator
  9. 8. Internet Protocol Version 6
    1. Protocol Description
    2. Structure
      1. IPv6 Fields
      2. Hexadecimal Decode
    3. Extensions
    4. Addressing
      1. Global Assignments
      2. Zero Suppression and Special Addressing
      3. Unicast Addresses
      4. Multicast Addresses
      5. Anycast Address
      6. Unspecified Address
      7. Required Addresses
      8. IPv4 and IPv6
    5. MAC Addressing
      1. MAC Addresses and IPv6
      2. Autoconfiguration and EUI-64
    6. Autoconfiguration
      1. Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6
    7. Tunneling
    8. Current Status and IPv6 Day
    9. Summary
    10. Additional Reading
    11. Review Questions
    12. Review Answers
    13. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Build the Topology Shown
      2. Activity 2—Configure the Router IPv6 Addresses
      3. Activity 3—Configure the Hosts with Global Unicast IPv6 Addresses
      4. Activity 4—Explain the Neighbor Discovery Process
      5. Activity 5—EUI-64
  10. 9. Transmission Control Protocol
    1. The Client/Server Model
    2. Protocol Description
    3. Reliable Communication
    4. Protocol Structure
      1. Ports
    5. Basic Operation
    6. TCP Sliding Window
      1. Window Size and Performance
      2. Sliding Window Experiment
      3. Silly Window Syndrome
      4. TCP Performance and Congestion Control
    7. Port Scanning
    8. Summary
    9. Additional Reading
    10. Review Questions
    11. Review Answers
    12. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Establishing a TCP Connection
      2. Activity 2—Tracking Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers
      3. Activity 3—Examining the TCP Flags
      4. Activity 4—Finding the Termination
      5. Activity 5—What Can You See?
  11. 10. User Datagram Protocol
    1. Protocol Description
    2. Operation
    3. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
    4. Domain Name System
      1. Components
      2. nslookup
    5. Updates for UDP
    6. Port Scanning
    7. Summary
    8. Additional Reading
    9. Review Questions
    10. Review Answers
    11. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—DHCP
      2. Activity 2—DHCP Messages
      3. Activity 3—UDP Header
      4. Activity 4—DNS
      5. Activity 5—nslookup
  12. Index