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Paper Prototyping

Book Description

Do you spend a lot of time during the design process wondering what users really need? Do you hate those endless meetings where you argue how the interface should work? Have you ever developed something that later had to be completely redesigned?

Paper Prototyping can help. Written by a usability engineer with a long and successful paper prototyping history, this book is a practical, how-to guide that will prepare you to create and test paper prototypes of all kinds of user interfaces. You'll see how to simulate various kinds of interface elements and interactions. You'll learn about the practical aspects of paper prototyping, such as deciding when the technique is appropriate, scheduling the activities, and handling the skepticism of others in your organization. Numerous case studies and images throughout the book show you real world examples of paper prototyping at work.

Learn how to use this powerful technique to develop products that are more useful, intuitive, efficient, and pleasing:

* Save time and money - solve key problems before implementation begins
* Get user feedback early - use it to focus the development process
* Communicate better - involve development team members from a variety of disciplines
* Be more creative - experiment with many ideas before committing to one

*Enables designers to solve design problems before implementation begins

*Five case studies provide real world examples of paper prototyping at work

*Delves into the specifics of what types of projects paper prototyping is and isn't good for.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Dedication
  4. Copyright
  5. Foreword
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Table of Contents
  8. Part I: Introduction to Paper Prototyping
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction
      1. What Is Paper Prototyping Anyway?
      2. What Paper Prototyping Isn’t
      3. Benefits of Paper Prototyping
      4. Paper Prototyping and Usability
      5. The History of Paper Prototyping
      6. Usefulness of Paper Prototyping
      7. Audience for This Book
      8. Usability for Everyone
      9. Author Background
      10. Terminology Used in This Book
      11. Chapter Overview
      12. No Bad Examples!
      13. Companion Web Site: www.paperprototyping.com
    2. Chapter 2: Case Studies
      1. Software: The MathWorks
      2. Web Application: Centra Symposium
      3. Small-Screen Display: Pingtel xpressa Phone Interface
      4. Touch Screen Interface: Jukebox Car Radio
      5. Historical Examples of Paper Prototyping
      6. 1974, Xerox: Stenographic Translator
      7. Summary
    3. Chapter 3: Thinking about Prototyping
      1. Creating an Interface—Look and Feel
      2. Designing
      3. Rendering
      4. Coding
      5. Psychological Benefits for Users
      6. Effects on the Product Team
      7. Summary
    4. Chapter 4: Making a Paper Prototype
      1. Paper Prototyping Materials
      2. Creating a Background
      3. How to Prototype Interface Widgets
      4. Representing the Users’ Choices
      5. Hand-Drawing Versus Screen Shots
      6. Simulating Interaction
      7. Beyond the Computer Screen–Incorporating Other Elements
      8. Summary
  9. Part II: Process: Conducting a Usability Study with a Paper Prototype
    1. Chapter 5: Planning a Usability Study with a Paper Prototype
      1. Overview of a Usability Study Using a Paper Prototype
      2. People to Involve
      3. Kickoff Meeting
      4. User Recruitment
      5. How Many Usability Studies?
      6. It Gets Easier
    2. Chapter 6: Task Design
      1. Characteristics of a Good Task
      2. Overview of the Task Creation Process
      3. Step 1: List User Goals
      4. Step 2: List Your Questions
      5. Step 3: Prioritize Your Questions
      6. Step 4: Create a Task
      7. Step 5: Number and Order the Tasks
      8. Step 6: Write Instructions for Users
      9. Step 7: Reality-Check Your Tasks
    3. Chapter 7: Preparing the prototype
      1. List the Pieces needed for the Tasks
      2. Don’t Forget the Data
      3. Divide and Conquer
      4. Parallel Design
      5. Existing versus New Design?
      6. Hand-Drawn versus Screen Shots?
      7. Tips for Hand-Drawn Phototypes
      8. Greeking and Simplification
      9. Using Screen Shots
      10. Separating Elements
      11. How Much to Prototype—Anticipating Paths and Errors
      12. Organizing the Prototype
      13. Design Reviews
      14. Internal Walkthroughs
      15. The Final Walkthrough—the Usability Test Rehearsal
      16. Pilot Tests
    4. Chapter 8: Introduction to Usability Test Facilitation
      1. Facilitator Responsibilities
      2. Ethical and Legal Responsibilities
      3. Facilitator Roles: Flight Attendant, Sportscaster, Scientist
      4. Co-Discovery (Two-User) Testing
      5. Making Trade-Offs
      6. Other Common Testing Challenges
      7. Tips for New Facilitators
    5. Chapter 9: Usability Testing with a Paper Prototype
      1. The Test Facility
      2. Seating
      3. Videotaping
      4. Preparing Users
      5. How the “Computer” Behaves
      6. Facilitating a Paper Prototype Test
      7. Ending the Test
      8. Combining Roles
      9. Iterative Refinement: Modifying the Prototype
    6. Chapter 10: Observers
      1. Benefits of In-Room Observers
      2. Concerns about In-Room Observers
      3. Who Shouldn’t Be in the Room
      4. Weighing Risks and Rewards
      5. The Rules
      6. Stay for the Entire Test
      7. Remain Silent While the Users Are Working
      8. Working up to In-Room Observers
      9. Preparing the Users
      10. Observer-User Interactions: Questions to Avoid
      11. What Observers Should Do
    7. Chapter 11: Data: Capturing, Prioritizing, and Communicating
      1. Capturing the Data (Note-Taking)
      2. Debriefing Meeting: Prioritizing the Issues
      3. Communicating and Documenting the Results
      4. Summary
  10. Part III: Deciding Whether to Use Paper
    1. Chapter 12: What Paper is (and isn't) Good for
      1. Dimensions of a Prototype
      2. Which Dimensions Matter?
      3. What Paper Prototypes Will Likely Find (Depth Issues)
      4. What Paper Prototypes May Find (Look Issues)
      5. What Paper Prototypes Won’t Find (Interaction Issues)
      6. Finding Problems through Inspection
      7. What Usability Testing Won’t Find (Real-Life Situations)
      8. Summary
    2. Chapter 13: The Politics of Paper Prototyping
      1. Validity
      2. Bias
      3. Examining Bias: Qualitative Analysis
      4. Professionalism
      5. Resource Constraints
      6. Tips for Dealing with Sheptics
    3. Chapter 14: When to Use Paper
      1. War Stories
      2. People and Logistics
      3. Development Context
      4. Tasks, Data, and Test Scenarios
      5. Timing and Scope
      6. Making Your Decision
      7. Hybrid (Paper + Software) Testing
  11. Part IV: Broadening the Focus
    1. Chapter 15: Examples of User-Centered Design
      1. Example 1: The Math Works
      2. Example 2: IBM
      3. Example 3: Dictaphone
    2. Chapter 16: Final Thoughts
  12. References
  13. Index
  14. Figure Credits
  15. About the Author