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Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming by Peter Norvig

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Chapter 18

Search and the Game of Othello

In the beginner’s mind there are endless possibilities; in the expert’s there are few.

–Suzuki Roshi, Zen Master

Game playing has been the target of much early work in AI for three reasons. First, the rules of most games are formalized, and they can be implemented in a computer program rather easily. Second, in many games the interface requirements are trivial. The computer need only print out its moves and read in the opponent’s moves. This is true for games like chess and checkers, but not for ping-pong and basketball, where vision and motor skills are crucial. Third, playing a good game of chess is considered by many an intellectual achievement. Newell, Shaw, and Simon say, “Chess is the intellectual game ...

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