develop both symmetric and asymmetric 10-Gbps line rate operation where the
symmetric operation will operate at 10 Gbps in both the downstream and
upstream directions. This development is obviously posing even more stringent
challenges in burst-mode IC developments [104, 105] and asking for more
appealing transceiver designs. For cost-effective 10-Gbps transceivers, there is
a possibility that the new small form–factor pluggable modules called SFPþ
being specified by the SFF Committee (SFF 8431), may play a significant role in
future PON-system developments [106].
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