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Performance Evaluation: Proven Approaches for Improving Program and Organizational Performance by Ingrid Guerra-López

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CHAPTER 10

DATA

This chapter defines data and establishes the relationship between data and information. It explains how to distinguish between hard and soft data and between qualitative and quantitative data. The four scales on which data can be measured are explained. Finally, the need for collecting relevant, reliable, and valid data and many methods for doing so are examined.

A central premise of evaluation and improving performance is that complete and relevant data are used to make interpretations and recommendations about how to improve performance. Unfortunately, one common mistake is to force connections between data that are already available and the evaluation questions. Although there is absolutely nothing wrong with using data that ...

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