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Performance Evaluation: Proven Approaches for Improving Program and Organizational Performance by Ingrid Guerra-López

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GENERAL EVALUATION ORIENTATIONS

Two common distinctions in evaluation are formative and summative. Formative evaluation typically occurs during the developmental stage of a program and can be used to improve the program before it is formally launched. The formative approach can also be used to improve all stages of performance improvement, from assessment to implementation, and the evaluation itself.

Summative evaluation occurs after the implementation of a program or solution and usually requires some appropriate amount of time to have transpired so that the object of evaluation has the opportunity to have the full impact required on performance at various levels of the organization. It is worth noting that summative evaluation can also be used ...

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