PHILLIPS'S ROI PROCESS
The Phillips ROI process begins with data collection after the program has been implemented and ends with calculating the ROI (Phillips, 1997a). As with Kirkpatrick's model, data should be collected at levels 1, 2, 3, and 4 so that, accepting Kirkpatrick's sequential analysis, the chain of impact occurs as participants learn and apply skills and knowledge that affect business results. Those levels were described in Chapter Four; this chapter therefore focuses on how Phillip's fifth level, ROI, is measured.
Collecting Postprogram Data
Data collection is the heart of this process. In some cases, postprogram data are collected and compared to preprogram data or expectations. These data should include both hard (for example, ...