The Phillips ROI process begins with data collection after the program has been implemented and ends with calculating the ROI (Phillips, 1997a). As with Kirkpatrick's model, data should be collected at levels 1, 2, 3, and 4 so that, accepting Kirkpatrick's sequential analysis, the chain of impact occurs as participants learn and apply skills and knowledge that affect business results. Those levels were described in Chapter Four; this chapter therefore focuses on how Phillip's fifth level, ROI, is measured.

Collecting Postprogram Data

Data collection is the heart of this process. In some cases, postprogram data are collected and compared to preprogram data or expectations. These data should include both hard (for example, ...

Get Performance Evaluation: Proven Approaches for Improving Program and Organizational Performance now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.