Indicators are observable and measurable occurrences that reveal something about the programs being evaluated and thus form a critical part of data collection. It is imperative that indicators bear a constant relationship to the thing being indicated. For example, a consultancy firm may have data suggesting for every $X spent in advertising, visits to the company Web site increased by Y. These data must be reliable and valid, just as tests must be reliable and valid. Matching the evaluation indicators to ones that were developed by a disciplined needs assessment using a systemic framework is ideal. However, even if this type of needs assessment was not performed, the appropriate indicators can be systematically ...

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