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Perl Pocket Reference, 5th Edition by Johan Vromans

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Operators and Precedence

Perl operators have the following associativity and precedence, listed from highest precedence to lowest. Table cells indicate groups of operators of equal precedence.

Assoc.

Operators

Description

right

terms and list operators

See next page.

left

->

Infix dereference operator.

none

++

Auto-increment (magical on strings).

 

--

Auto-decrement.

right

**

Exponentiation.

right

\

Reference to an object (unary).

right

! ~

Unary logical NOT, bitwise NOT.

right

+ -

Unary plus, minus.

left

=~

Binds a scalar expression to a pattern match.

left

!~

Same, but negates the result.

left

* / % x

Multiplication, division, modulo, repetition.

left

+ - .

Addition, subtraction, concatenation.

left

>> <<

Bitwise shift right, bitwise shift left.

right

named unary operators

E.g., sin, chdir, -f, -M.

none

< > <= >=

lt gt le ge

Numerical relational operators.

String relational operators.

none

== != <=>

eq ne cmp

~~

Numerical equal, not equal, compare.

Stringwise equal, not equal, compare.

Smartmatch.

left

&

Bitwise AND.

left

| ^

Bitwise OR, bitwise XOR.

left

&&

Logical AND.

left

|| //

Logical OR, defined OR.

none

..

Range operator.

 

...

Alternative range operator.

right

?:

Ternary if ? then : else operator.

right

= += -= etc.

Assignment operators.

left

,

Comma operator, also list element separator.

left

=>

Same, enforces the left operand to be a string.

right

list operators (rightward)

See below.

right

not

Low precedence logical NOT.

left

and

Low precedence logical AND.

left

or

Low precedence logical OR.

left

xor

Low precedence logical XOR.

Parentheses can be used to group ...

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