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216 PERSPECTIVE SKETCHING GLOSSARY 217
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Reflection
A reflection would be shown on the
floor directly under an object, if the
surface the object is placed on is shiny.
Some other times the object itself might
be shiny or specular (think of a vehicle),
and a reflection of the sky might be
rendered on the hood or on the top half
of the side. Reflections might pick up on
the colors they are reflecting, but also
will be blended with the color of the
receiving surface. For example, a red car
might pick up some sky tones on some
surfaces. Consider what color you would
pick to render the resulting reflections.
Rendering
For the artist and designer, a rendering
refers to a sketch that has been
developed further, by creating the
lines that define its volume and by
adding color, textural notes, and shading
to define the dierent materials it is
made of. A rendering typically would
be drawn larger than a sketch, covering
an entire page.
Shading, shading lines
In the process of rendering, an object,
or a scene, would need to receive
shading, or dierent tonal values (of
gray or color), according to the light
sources that we have. Shading would
appear on the surfaces in the opposite
direction of the light source. In the
rendering process, the designer or artist
will decide what type of shading will be
most appropriate—whether that means
using darker tones in color or using
very thin parallel lines. This term is also
referred to as hatching or crosshatching
if the lines intersect each other, forming
a tight grid.
Shooting boards
Shooting boards are a specific type of
drawing where the designer or artist
produces a series of frames, or cutters,
to represent an action that needs to be
performed in a specific set of steps:
a scene that needs to be described in
successive stages; how a user operates
a product; or a motion that is carried
by a product in sequential order. In a
few frames the designer represents—
visually—the motions that will describe a
series of steps, using a minimum amount
of information, usually with black pens
or pencils and a limited tonal range.
Sketch
A sketch is a quick representation of
an object, a scene, or any other motif,
done with a drawing utensil over a 2D
surface. It can be done by hand or using
digital techniques. It is an eective way
to quickly communicate a concept to
other designers or to a client. It is often
produced with a limited range of tools:
a pad of paper, pencil or black pen,
and some colors to give some contrast
or give an accent to a particular area.
A sketch is often accompanied with
a series of quick callouts added on the
side to explain certain features.
Station point
Refers to the specific point in space
where we are standing to look at a view
in perspective. That point unequivocally
places a viewer in the scene, marking a
unique distance from the floor to the
eyes, and the distance from this point
and each of the vanishing points present
in the scene.
Storyboard (see shooting boards)
Stroke
In drawing and rendering, a stroke is
the resulting line from using a drawing
utensil over a drawing surface. Strokes
can be well delineated with the help of
a ruler or a drafting aid or can be
free-handed resulting in a more gestural
line. When rendering with markers over
marker paper, the strokes need to be
applied quickly and in parallel strokes,
so that the resulting color will blend
without leaving strikes across the area
that we are filling out.
Texture
In a rendering or drawing, the texture
of an object, or an interior, refers to
the quality of the surface that is
represented, and it can range from
matte or coarse to shiny or specular.
Designers would have to represent a
particular surface quality with darker
color tones or thin lines, and that is
especially important when two or more
adjacent materials are present.
Three-point perspective
A three-point perspective drawing
considers the two vanishing points
that we would have gathered in a
two-point perspective, and all vertical
lines would also converge into a third
point in space. If we imagine that we
are standing on top of a tower looking
down, the vanishing point that results
from converging all the vertical lines
into a single point, it would be called
a nadir. Likewise, if we are at the base
of the tower looking up, the vertical
lines above us would converge into
a point called a zenith.
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216 PERSPECTIVE SKETCHING
GLOSSARY 217
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Thumbnails
Thumbnails are “thumb-sized” quick
sketches that artists and designers often
create during the process of concept
ideation—usually before sketches or
renderings. Drawing with thumbnails is
an eective way to quickly explore
dierent concepts without having to
worry about specific details. Often,
dozens of thumbnails can fit onto a
single page. In the very early stages of
the project, the goal is to produce as
many thumbnails as possible and usually
there is no color or shading involved.
Two-point perspective
In a two-point perspective drawing,
we would situate objects in the space
parallel or perpendicular to each other,
and that would give us two dierent
converging points or vanishing points,
one on the right and one on the left.
As a convention, all vertical lines would
be kept vertical without converging
into another point in space.
Underlay (see underline)
Underline
In the process of creating a rendering,
designers and artists sometimes work
with an underline, which is a preliminary
drawing that they can place under the
piece of paper they’re working with to
give them a base with which to work.
Often, designers would produce a
rudimentary layout showing just main
perspective lines or a skeletal structure.
Then, they work on top of that first
layout on a new piece of paper.
Sometimes, this technique gives them a
much needed foundation (and freedom)
to create believable perspective views.
Other times, this term refers to the very
loose lines that would first apply be
applied to the page, often done with
deliberate gestural strokes.
Vanishing point
The vanishing point is the point in
space where two or more parallel lines
converge. If the lines are on the ground
or parallel to the ground, they will
converge into a specific point in the
horizon. Parallel lines that are situated
in an incline will also converge into the
vanishing point, although it will not be
situated in the horizon line.
Vantage point (see station point)
Vignette (see frame)
Vellum paper
Vellum paper is often used to sketch
and render. Its translucency oers the
possibility of developing concepts in
layers. It accepts marker, ink, and pencil
tones well, and it comes in pads of
dierent sizes or even in rolls.
Wireframe
A wireframe is a representation of
a structure, or an object, exclusively
using thin lines, as if the subject was
made of thin wire. Sometimes this
representation is showing hidden lines
to give the designer the opportunity
to see how the lines touch the floor
or how they aect other surfaces or
objects (see underline). Often these
wireframe renditions are produced
digitally and printed out to be used
as underlays to help designers draw
accurate perspective views.
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